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180 Cards in this Set

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Mice, peccaries, and insects eat the plants. The energy moves from plants to the mice, peccaries, and insects. The peccaries eat the mice and insects also. Energy moves from the mice and insects to the peccaries. Bobcats and coyotes eat the peccaries. Energy moves from the peccaries to the bobcats and coyotes.
Describe what is going on in the diagram. Who is eating who and which direction does the energy flow?
Which direction are the arrows pointing?
What is homeostasis?
The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
What is permeability?
The ability of a substance (usually liquid or gas) to pass through a barrier (like a cell membrane)
What is DNA?
A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA
What is DNA composed of?
Two chains of deoxyribose and phosphate (the sides of the ladder) and nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, which pair up in the middle between the long chains (like the rungs of the ladder)
When DNA is replicating, which bases pair together?
Adenine (a) pairs with thymine (t). Cytosine (c) pairs with guanine (g). Also works in reverse.
Birds have various types of beaks for feeding. Which type of beak would be best for retrieving nectar out of a flower?

A. Pouched bill of Pelican
B. Serrated bill of Goose
C. Long, slim bill of Hummingbird
D. Sturdy, curved bill of Parrot
C. Long, slim bill of Hummingbird (it can fit into the flower and reach the nectar)
Flowers are pollinated by different methods. The flower shape and color often determines how it is pollinated. Brightly colored flowers are most often pollinated by _____

A. Wind
B. Mammals
C. Rainfall
D. Insects
D. Insects
What is a producer?
A producer is a plant. Producers are the starting point for energy in a food chain or food web.
What is a consumer?
A consumer is an organism that eats a producer or other consumers to obtain the energy/nutrients for physiological processes. Consumers may be eaten by other organisms.
Which group, producer or consumer, changes light energy into food energy?
In the food web pictured, which of the following organisms feeds on the largest variety of different producers?

A. Butterfly
B. Dragonfly
C. Grasshopper
D. Mouse
C. Grasshopper
A. Predator (because it has sticky stuff when it is around roundworms only)
Which word best describes the fungus in the above situation?

A. Predator
B. Producer
C. Parasite
D. Decomposer
Plants can survive in a clear, closed container without animals. Animals cannot survive in a closed container without plants. Why can't animals survive in a closed container without plants?
Plants produce oxygen, which animals need. In a sealed container, eventually the oxygen would be depleted.
Some mesquite trees have deeper roots than any other plant in the desert. How are deep roots an adaptation for survival in the desert?
Roots can extend great distances to reach water.
Describe a characteristic of members of the plant kingdom that distinguishes them from members of the animal kingdom.
Plants use chlorophyll for solar-energy transformation, aka, photosynthesis (know both ways)
Cacti grow slowly compared to most other plants. The fact that cacti keep their stomata closed for much of the day can help explain this growth characteristic. Explain the advantage of keeping stomata closed during the day?
It limits water loss through transpiration. Transpiration chances increase with heat and sun (similar to evaporation).
What is transpiration?
Transpiration is the passage of water through a plant from the roots, through the xylem, and to the atmosphere via the stomata.
reduced number of prairie dogs
According to the information above, what is responsible for the decrease in the black-footed ferret population?
C. Decomposers growing

If the wood is rotting then it is dead/dying. The only option could be decomposers growing.
The picture shows a piece of rotting wood. Which of these does the picture demonstrate?

A. Photosynthesis occurring
B. Wood regenerating
C. Decomposers growing
D. Genes transforming
The use of photosynthesis
Knowledge of which of these is most important in classifying this new organism into a kingdom?
D. Males compete with one another for females.

The bigger the male, the more appealing to the female (and easier to beat up the other sea lion)
Male sea lions can be twice the size of female sea lions. Which best explains the difference in size between male and female sea lions?

A. they are prey for orcas and sharks
B. both males and females hunt on land
C. sea lions hold their breath while diving
D. Males compete with one another for females
Cells are organized into ____, which are organized into ____, which are finally organized into ____ ____.
Tissues, organs, organ systems
What is a population?
All of the individuals of one SPECIES in a given area
What is a community?
Multiple populations interacting and occupying a given area
What is a cell?
The basic unit of all living things; carry out the life functions of an organism
What is synthesis?
Forming a more complex substance from combining elements or simpler compounds. Cells synthesize materials for our body's use all the time!
contain genetic information, composed of DNA, set number per species (Humans 23 pairs), found in nucleus
What are chromosomes and where are they found?
Surrounds the nucleus and provides openings for transporting of materials in/out of nucleus.
What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
contains RNA for protein synthesis (making)
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Centrioles are involved in cellular division
What is the function of centrioles?
A chloroplast is an organelle in a plant cell which contains chlorophyll. Photosynthesis takes place inside a chloroplast.
What is a chloroplast?
stores, separates, and serves as cell's transport system

The picture is of rough ER. Rough ER has ribosomes attached, and smooth does not.
Explain the function of Endoplasmic Reticulum or ER. Is the picture of rough or smooth ER?
Packages proteins in the cell
Explain the function of the golgi apparatus in a cell.
Lysosomes digest proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates; transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal; when lysosome explodes the cell dies
What is the function of a lysosome in cells?
Mitochondria produce energy in cells via chemical reactions

Muscles/muscle tissue need more mitochondria
What is the function of mitochondria in the cell? Which type of tissue would need more mitochondria?
Ribosomes are protein factories; some are free-floating and others are attached to Rough ER
Explain the purpose of ribosomes in the cell.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound sac for storage, digestion, and waste removal.

Various types of vacuoles are found in both types of cells. In plants the vacuole is large and can take up much of the cell.
What is a vacuole? Are they found in plant and animal cells?
A cell wall is most common in plants and plant-like organisms. The cell wall provides structure for the plant cells so the plant can be upright in position.
What is a cell wall and what type of cell can it be found in, plants or animals?
The plasma membrane is the outer membrane of the cell (permeable) which allows certain things in and out of the cell.

The plasma membrane is made up of proteins surrounded by a phospholibid bi-layer. The proteins in this layer allow for active-transport to occur.
What is a plasma membrane? What is the name of the special "layer" that makes up the plasma membrane?
What is active transport?
the movement of ions or molecules across a cellular membrane from a lower to a higher concentration, requiring the consumption of energy.
What is passive transport?
Osmosis and diffusion
What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across the cell membrane without the use of energy. The water moves from a higher to lower concentraion.
What is diffusion?
Movement of molecules from higher to lower concentrations. Can occur across cell membranes or even in the air/atmosphere.
What is a hypertonic solution?
A hypertonic solution is more concentrated and has a large amount of particles other than water.
What is a hypotonic solution?
There is more water in a hypotonic solution, and water will attempt to leave.
What is an isotonic solution?
Isotonic solutions are equally concentrated
What is facilitated diffusion and how is it different from regular diffusion?
Facilitated diffusion requires the help of another molecule. The rate will depend on the concentration of the helper molecule, not the substance itself.

Facilitated diffusion often uses protein channels or carrier proteins.
How will water move across the plasma membrane?

Solution A has a glucose concentration of 100M. Solution B has a glucose concentration of 100M. How will the water molecules move?
They won't move because the concentration is the same in both solutions.
How will water move across the plasma membrane?

Solution A has a glucose concentraion of 100M. Solution B has a fructose concentration of 75M. How will the water molecules move?
Water will move from solution B to solution A until the concentration of solutes is equal.

B has less solute, so more water. Water will move to where there is less water or concentration of water.
The cell pictured is hypotonic (solution around it is hypertonic). The cell has a low concentration of solute molecules and lots of water molecules.
Is the cell pictured hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic? Why?
It is hypertonic (the area around the cell is hypotonic). There is a higher concentration of solute molecule inside the cell compared to the amount of water molecules.
Is the cell pictured hypotonic, hypertonic, or isotonic?
It is isotonic because the concentration of solutes and water are the same in and outside of the cell.
Is the cell pictured hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic?
What is glycolysis?
Glycolosis breaks down glucose and creates 2 ATP (energy); is followed by further energy production methods
What is the Kreb's Cycle?
The Kreb's Cycle is the step after glycolysis; occurs in the mitochondria; produces 2 ATP
What is the Electon Transport System?
The Electron Transport System is after the Kreb's Cycle; also occurs in the mitochondria; 32 ATP produced
What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration?
Anaerobic respiration does not require the use of Oxygen as an electron acceptor; Aerobic respiration does require oxygen
What is fermentaion?
Fermentation is an anaerobic energy releasing process. There is alcoholic fermentaion which produces a by-product of ethanol (how we make bread, alcohol, etc) AND there is fermentation that occurs in the human body which produces lactic acid (which makes your muscles feel weak and sore after a workout)
Sickle-cell anemia is a disorder resulting from a mutation that leads to the production of an abnormal protein. Which component of the DNA molecule provides instructions for the production of the protein?

A. phosphate groups
B. sugar molecules
C. sequence of nitrogen bases
D. bonds that hold the sugars to the bases
C. Sequence of nitrogen bases - these are the A, C, G, T
In all plant and animal cells, the nucleus contains long molecules of DNA. Which of the following best describes the function of DNA?

A. DNA provides the shape and structure of the nucleus.
B. DNA packages materials for transport through the nucleus.
C. DNA carries materials into and out of the nucleus.
D. DNA contains the blue print for producing the whole organism.
D. DNA contains the blueprint for producing the whole organism.
Erwin Chargaff studied the DNA of organisms within a single species. Chargaff discovered that the amount of adenine is about equal to the amount of thymine. Explain why the ratio of adenine to thymine is nearly 1:1?
Adenine and thymine are nitrogen bases that pair with each other.
Which of these is a function of the cell membrane in all cells?

A. producing cellular nutrients
B. preserving cellular wastes
C. neutralizing chemicals
D. maintaining homeostasis
D. maintaining homeostasis
What is the chemical equation for respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy released

(#'s after the chemical symbols should be subscripts)
What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 12 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O

(#'s after chemical symbols should be subscripts)
D. Only one letter was changed (hence "single")
Using this illustration of a normal DNA sequence: which choice below represents a single base change in the sequence?

Using the illustration above, chose the DNA sequence which would pair with the above strand.

What is replication (in terms of DNA)?
the process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself, each strand, as it separates, synthesizing a complementary strand.
What is translation (in terms of DNA)?
messenger RNA (mRNA) determines the sequence of amino acids (nitrogenous bases) so that a protein can be constructed
What is transcription (in terms of DNA)?
process where DNA is used to make a complimentary strand of RNA
What is the Human Genome Project?
project which mapped out the genes in human DNA
How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?
23 pairs
The process being shown is transcription because it is the making of an RNA strand from a DNA strand. Translation is RNA from RNA.
When viewing the process in the above picture, would you say this is transcription or translation and why?
nitrogen base pair sequence or amino acid
Using the diagram, the 3 base pairs attached to the tRNA can also be called _____.
Use the picture above to answer the following:

What is another name for the newly synthesized amino acid chain?
"T" stands for thymine. Thymine is not present in RNA molecules, only in DNA molecules.
Use the picture above to answer the following:

Looking at the nitrogen bases, why aren't there any "T" in the diagram?
A man treated his home with a pesticide that kills roaches. The first application of the pesticide killed 92% of the roaches. Two months later he applied the pesticide to his home again, but the second application killed only 65% of the roaches. What would best explain the decrease in the effectiveness of the pesticide?
The surviving roaches were naturally resistant to the pesticide, and that resistance was inherited by their offspring
The guppy is a species of small freshwater fish. Scientists observed that the average size of guppies in a pond decreased over a few years after a guppy predator was introduced into the pond. Which of the following best explains the change in guppy size?

A. speciation
B. convergent evolution
C. inbreeding
D. natural selection
D. natural selection

Because the fat guppies would be yummy prey, they diminished quickly. The small guppies would be able to hide easily. Survival of the "fittest".
What is phenotype?
Phenotype is the way an organism "looks" due to its genetic makeup
What is genotype?
Genotype is the actual genetic makeup
What does homozygous mean?
Homozygous is used when talking about genotype. Someone who is homozygous genetically has 2 identical alleles for the trait (TT or tt)
What does heterozygous mean?
Heterozygous is used when talking about genotype. Someone who is heterozygous for a trait has two different alleles, one dominant and one recessive (Tt)
What does hybrid mean?
A hybrid is the same as a heterozygous genotype
What does purebred mean?
When something is purebred, it has a homozygous genotype
How can a mutation be beneficial to an organism?
A change in the phenotype of an organism may provide an advantage over other organisms - example, a change in color of an organism might allow it to camouflage better in its surroundings, which allows more organisms to survive
Can all mutations be passed on to offspring?
No. Some mutations only occur in body cells. These cannot be passed on to offspring. Mutations that occur to DNA of the cells which produce eggs and sperm CAN pass on to offspring (known as germline mutations)
What is a point mutation?
Simple change in one base of the sequence.

Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat.
Point mutation: The fat hat ate the wee rat.
What is a frame shift mutation?
One or more bases are inserted or deleted

Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat.
Frame shift: The fat caa tet hew eer at
What is a deletion (mutation)?
mutation resulting in missing DNA, can be large or small, can also cause frame shift mutation

Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat
Deletion: The fat ate the wee rat
What is an insertion (mutation)?
Mutations that result in the addition of extra DNA, can also cause frame shift mutations, result in a nonfunctional protein

Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat
Insertion: The fat cat xlw ate the wee rat.
What is an inversion (mutation)?
an entire section of DNA is reversed, can be large or small.

Original: The fat cat ate the wee rat
Insertion: The fat tar eew eht eta tac
The diagram shows three generations of cells produced by a single cell through mitosis. In the process, a single mutation occurred at the point indicated. The mutation caused changes within a dominant allele. How many of the 15 cells contain the mutation?
D. Speciation - two species are coming out of one
Which of the following explains this phenomenon?

A. Competition
B. Extinction
C. Predation
D. Speciation
100% Ttss
If a plant that is homozygous tall and wrinkled is crossed with a short, wrinkled plant, which percentage of genotypes would most likely be found in the first-generation offspring?
Complete a punnett square if necessary
D. Genes in DNA
The information in the box identifies some of the organs of the kitten. Which of the following is identical for every cell in each of the four organs?

A. Amount of ATP
B. Function of cell
C. Size of cells
D. Genes in DNA
The diagram represents the chromosomes of a person with a genetic disorder caused by nondisjunction, in which the chromosomes fail to separate properly. Which chromosome set displays nondisjunction?
It would be a point mutation. This mutation would only change the identity of one amino acid.
The chain above represents three codons. What change would be expected in the amino acid chain if the mutation shown above occurred?
If the template of a strand of DNA is 5' AGATGCATC 3', the complementary strand will be —
If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its body cells, how many chromosomes will be in each daughter cell after mitosis?
If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its body cells, how many chromosomes will be in each daughter cell after meiosis?
When a sea urchin egg is removed from the ocean and placed in freshwater, the egg swells and bursts. Which of these causes water to
enter the egg?

A. Coagulation
B. Sodium pump
C. Active transport
D. Osmosis
D. Osmosis
Clown fish are small reef fish that seek protection from predators by sheltering themselves among the stinging tentacles of sea anemones. Clown fish are very territorial and can potentially scare off predators of sea anemones. This relationship is an example of —
mutualism (both are benefiting)
Which of these classifications is most specific?

A. Family
B. Genus
C. Phylum
D. Order
B. Genus
About 10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed to the next level. What usually happens to the energy that is not passed to the next trophic level or used to carry out life processes?
it is given off as heat
Why would a freshwater aquarium be a dangerous habitat for saltwater fish?
The freshwater would act like a hypotonic solution. The water would want to move into the cells of the fish due to the high salt concentration in the fish's cells. Eventually the fish's cells would gain too much water for its vacuoles to hold.
What is a Moneran?
prokaryotes - single-celled organisms lacking a nucleus; bacteria (archae- and eu-)
What is a Protist?
unicellular, colonial, and multicellular eukaryotes that do not have characteristics of plants, animals, or fungi

Examples: Euglena, slime molds, red algae, water molds, diatoms, brown algae or kelp, green algae
What is a fungus?
A fungus (or fungi, plural) decomposes other organisms in order to obtain food (sometimes are parasitic). There are club fungi, sac fungi, lichens, conjugation fungi, and imperfect fungi. Fungi are classified mainly by their reproductive organs.
What is the function of the circulatory system?
transporting nutrients, wastes and gases to and from cells
What is the function of the digestive system?
breaking down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb and then our cells to use
What is the function of the nervous system?
controls, regulates, and communicates what is going on in the body (things that happen quickly in the body); regulates and maintains homeostasis (with help of endocrine system)
What is the function of the endocrine system?
produces hormones; regulates mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, as well as sexual function and reproductive processes (things that happen slowly in the body)
Bacteria cell (notice the lack of a nucleus) - it can only make its own food if it is blue-green bacteria.
What type of cell is in the picture? Can this cell obtain its own food?
Animal cell - there is no cell wall
Is the picture of an animal or plant cell? How can you tell?
Plant cell - there is a cell wall
Is the picture above of an animal or plant cell? Why?
Virus - no it cannot make its own food
What type of organism is pictured and can it make its own food?
What is the function of the integumentary system?
acts as a barrier between body and outside world
What is the function of the skeletal system?
Support and movement of body; protection of internal organs
What is the function of the respiratory system?
provides the oxygen required by cells for cellular respiration, in turn providing the body with energy
WHat is the function of the muscular system?
movement, posture, heat production/regulation
What is the function of the excretory system?
Collect water and filter body fluids. Remove and concentrate waste products from body fluids and return other substances to body fluids as necessary for homeostasis. Eliminate excretory products from the body.
Hemoglobin carries oxygen to body cells. Which body system contains hemoglobin?
Circulatory System
Which of the following is found in both cells and viruses?

A. Silica
B. Genetic Material
C. Digestive Cavity
D. Flagella
B. Genetic Material
How is the excretory system most likely to respond when an animal is thirsty?
If you are thirsty then your body is telling you that you need fluids. Your body will retain water/fluids until you satisfy that need.
Which of these does a virus need in order to multiply?

A. Chloroplasts from a host cell
B. A host cell to provide oxygen for the virus
C. New ADP from a host cell
D. A host cell to replicate the virus's DNA
D. A host cell to replicate the virus's DNA
The myxoma virus was used to control an overpopulation of European rabbits in Australia. When first introduced in the mid-1900s, the virus greatly reduced the European rabbit population. Today the virus is not an effective control of the European rabbit population. Fewer European rabbits are affected by the virus today because they have —

A. learned to avoid the virus
B. moved away from infected areas
C. undergone a change in diet
D. developed resistance to the virus
D. developed resistance to the virus
Some bacteria benefit mammals by helping with —

A. growth
B. defense
C. digestion
D. respiration
C. digestion
The bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, is most closely related to the —

A. spotted chorus frog, Psuedacris clarki
B. Asian flying frog, Polypediates leucomystax
C. northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens
D. African bullfrog, Pyxicephalus adspersus
C. northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens

The genus name is the same in both.
The diagram shows different parts of a human sperm cell. Which part of the cell is most likely specialized for mobility?
C. kidney -> ureter -> bladder -> urethra
A portion of the human excretory system is represented in the diagram. The order in which urine flows through the system is —

A. Uretha -> bladder -> ureter -> kidney
B. ureter -> kidney -> bladder -> urethra
C. kidney -> ureter -> bladder -> urethra
D. bladder -> urethra -> kidney -> ureter
Nutrients from digested food move from the digestive system directly into the —
circulatory system (to be transported throughout the body)
A laboratory investigation included examining prepared slides of pond water. Single-celled organisms with a nucleus and either cilia or flagella were visible. These organisms probably belong to the kingdom —
Multicellular eukaryotes that are usually mobile and obtain food from other organisms probably belong to the kingdom -
The medulla, part of the brain stem, reacts quickly to increased levels of CO2 in the blood and stimulates a response from the —
the respiratory system - if CO2 levels are high, then O2 levels are low and we need to increase our breathing
Which system of the body would be directly affected if a large number of T cells were attacked by a virus?
Immune system
What is the most common threat to a host organism posed by an invading virus?
Destruction of healthy cells by viral reporduction
3 - the shortening of the muscle pulls the arm up
Which structure in the upper arm is responsible for raising the lower arm?
nervous and muscular systems
Pelicans prevent serious wing damage by entering the water in the manner shown above. Which two organ systems in the pelican work together the most to accomplish this maneuver?
Viruses can be transmitted in a variety of ways. The virus that causes SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) can be transmitted when an infected person coughs or sneezes. This virus is transmitted in a manner most similar to the transmission of —
All of the following symptoms are likely associated with bacterial infection except —

A. skin rashes or lesions
B. elevated body temperature
C. swollen glands or tissues
D. increased red blood cell count
D - there would NOT be an increase in RED blood cells

there would be an increase in WHITE blood cells
What type of organism can live in the human intestine and aid in the digestive process?
Many species of bacteria can be found in the human mouth. Explain the great variety of bacteria in the mouth?
the presence of nutrients in the mouth make it a favorable habitat
Which of the following would make a species most susceptible to extinction?

A. few natural predators
B. extreme specialization
C. short growth cycles
D. extensive migration distances
B. extreme specialization

with more specialization, the less opportunities to do other things
What is extinction?
The complete END of a species - it no longer exists and can reproduce.
Which of the following is most likely to cause increases in a predator population?

A. Fewer prey
B. A reduction in competition
C. More parasites
D. A period of drought
B. A reduction in competition
What is competition?
the struggle among organisms, both of the same and of different species, for food, space, and other vital requirements
What is specialization?
to adapt to special conditions; restrict to specific limits; to be adapted to a special function or environment.
What is migration?
to pass periodically from one region or climate to another, as certain birds, fishes, and animals
What is mutualism?
a relationship between two species of organisms in which both benefit from the association.
What is commensalism?
(of an animal, plant, fungus, etc.) living with, on, or in another, without injury to either.
What is symbiosis?
the living together of two dissimilar organisms, as in mutualism, commensalism, amensalism, or parasitism
In Central America there is a tree called bullhorn acacia (Acacia cornigera) that provides both food and shelter to a certain species of ant (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea). The ants live within the tree without causing it harm. In fact, the ants protect the tree by vigorously attacking and stinging other animals that try to eat it. This relationship is an example of -
An oakworm caterpillar feeds on the leaves of an oak tree. This type of interaction is -
What is competition?
the struggle among organisms, both of the same and of different species, for food, space, and other vital requirements
A hummingbird feeds on the nectar of a flowering plant. In this process the bird gains nutrition while spreading the plant's pollen to other flowers. The relationship between hummingbirds and flowering plants can be described as -
What is natural selection?
the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures will tend to survive and reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind, thus ensuring the perpetuation of those favorable traits in succeeding generations.
What is speciation?
the formation of new species as a result of geographic, physiological, anatomical, or behavioral factors that prevent previously interbreeding populations from breeding with each other.
What is diversity?
the state or fact of being diverse; difference; unlikeness; variety; multiformity.
What are adaptations?
An alteration or adjustment in structure or habits, often hereditary, by which a species or individual improves its condition in relationship to its environment.
What is predation?
a relation between animals in which one organism captures and feeds on others.
What is parasitism?
a relation between organisms in which one lives as a parasite on another.
Which of these characteristics might help a plant species survive in an area with limited sunlight?

A. Bright flowers
B. Large leaves
C. Short stems
D. Thick cuticles
B. Large leaves

With limited sunlight, it will be complicated to perform enough photosynthesis unless there is a large surface area and more chloroplasts
What is an adaptation?
a form or structure modified to fit a changed environment
What is a cuticle in a plant?
a very thin film covering the surface of plants, protects leaf from excessive moisture loss and other possible harm
C. Raccoons

Raccons eat other consumers (making them secondary) and producers (making them primary)
Which organisms in this food web can be described as both primary and secondary consumers?

A. Hawks
B. Weasels
C. Raccoons
D. Mice
C. both eat primary consumers

this is the only answer you can tell from the diagram
Wolves and hawks are at the same trophic level because they —

A. both live on land
B. are both large mammals
C. both eat primary consumers
D. have similar hunting patterns
.06% - less than 1%

Divide 3 kcal by 5000 kcal
Approximately how much of the energy available in the tissues of the producer is eventually incorporated into the tissues of a secondary consumer?
Which structure regulates gas exchange during the processes of photosynthesis and respiration?
Upper epidermis - protects internal tissues
What is structure R and what does it do?
Lower epidermis - protects inner tissues of leaf
What is structure S, and what is its function?
What is structure Q?
What is interdependence of organisms?
when organisms depend on each other - like symbiosis, etc.
Before the quarry was dug, the land contained more vegetation. What impact has this change most likely had on the local ecosystem?
A lower number of producers. If the producers have lost their energy source they will die or move.
A woman running in a marathon requires a constant supply of oxygen to her muscles. Which cells carry oxygen to muscle tissue?
Red blood cells
For rabbits, having long hair is an advantage over having short hair in environments with —
low temperatures
What is a vestigial structure?
These are structures present in an organism but no longer used. Through evolution the use of the structure has changed. An example would be a human tail bone or appendix.
What are homologous structures?
Homologous structures are common anatomical traits between organisms that have common ancestors.
What are analogous structures?
Analogous structures exist in multiple species but have no evolutionary link (no common ancestors).
What is camouflage?
the ability to hide from predators by blending in with surroundings
What is mimicry?
when an organism appears to be a different organism in order to provide an advantage, usually over a predator
What is evolution?
change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation by such processes as mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift