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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
QRS complex represents
ventricular depolarization
All are associated with metabolic syndrome except:

a. Abdominal obesity
b. Proinflammatory state
c. High triglycerides
d. Smoking
A six month aerobic exercise program ------- absolute submaximal exercise Rate Pressure Product
initial increases in HR from rest to the beginning of exercise (less than 100 bpm) occur by
the decrease in parasympathetic activation
When recovering from exercise greater than 100 bpm, -------- facilitates the decrease in HR.
a decrease in sympathetic activation
An increase in afterload does not facilitate an ------ in stroke volume during exercise.
What is the physiological factor that is the major difference between fitness levels in athletes and untrained individuals?
Maximal Stroke Volume
Homocysteine, Lipoprotein a, Small LDL particles, and inflammatory markers are -----
while obesity is not.
Emerging Risk Factors
Increased weight gain, increased sodium intake, inactivity, and diabetes all can increase the risk of
Nitric Oxide facilitates ---- and is inhibited when damage occurs to the arterial walls
After six months of aerobic training, Cardiac Output would ----- if you tested the individual at the same relative intensity that you tested before they were trained.
After six months of training, parasympathetic stimulation would ------ if you tested the individual at the same relative intensity that you did before they were trained.
stay the same
After six months of aerobic training, cardiac output would ------- if you tested the individual at the same absolute intensity that you did before they were trained.
stay the same
Which type of diabetes is the most common form of diabetes
Type II - Adult onset - Non Insulin dependent - NIDDM - insufficiency or insensitivety of insulin
Cardiac output is determined by
stroke volume and HR
The highest BP that is reached during the contraction phase of the heart cycle is
From rest to exercise, mean arterial pressure should
From rest to exercise, diastolic blood pressure should
decrease or remain relatively the same
HDL’s greater than ----- is a negative risk factor for coronary heart disease
60 mg/dl
LDL concentration less than ----- is most desirable
100 mg/dl
Exercise training can improve the relative risk of coronary heart disease by (3 things)
decreasing blood pressure, decreasing body fat, increasing glucose tolerance.
The ---- is used as a minimal standard for individuals to enter into low to moderate intensity exercise programs
All except what should be included on a medical history exam?
b)exercise history
c)recent surgical procedures d)occupational history e)exercise history
f)health status of children
f)health status of children
The initial depolarization of the heart occurs at the
sinoatrial node
Which is not a modifiable risk factor?
a)Family history of CVD
c)impaired fasting glucose d)hypertesnsion
a)Family history of CVD
What is the primary reason for the increase in blood pressure during exercise?
Increased CO
Diastolic BP during exercise is affected most by
In lead AVR, the P wave should have a ----- deflection
In lead II, the P wave should have a ---------- deflection
Mean arterial pressure equals (3 Answers)
total peripheral resistance x cardiac output
Normal fasting blood glucose should be between
60-99 mg/dl.
Stroke volume is lowest in the ------ position
Heart rate is lowest in the ----- position
Enlargement is caused by
Volume overload
Hypertrophy is caused by
Pressure overload
If the amplitude of the p wave is increased in lead II and VI, this is diagnostic of
Right atrial enlargement
After six months of aerobic training, sympathetic system stimulation would ------ if you tested the individual in the same absolute intensity that you tested before they were trained.
When moving from V1-V6 the R wave becomes ---- and the S wave becomes -----
Larger, smaller
10 electrodes are placed on the torso to get an exercising --- lead EKG
Bipolar leads
Leads I II & III
Unipolar leads
Leads I II & III
AVR AVF AVL are called
Limb/ Extremety Leads
V1-V6 are called
Precordial or chest leads
Lead I =
Lead II =
Lead III =
In right axis deviation, the electrical axis of the QRS complex lies between
+90-180 degrees
What is recommended if a 44 yr old woman with symptoms of heart disease wanted to start a moderate exercise program.
A clinical exercise stress test would be recommended
when a submax test is given to an individual who has an increased risk and has symptoms of heart disease what do we need to do?
Have a physician present
1 MET =
(Basal metabolic rate/Metabolic equivalents)
3.5 ml/Kg/min
Moderate exercise is ----- METs
3-4 which is approx. 3-4 mph
(Less than 60% of vo2 max)
Positive Risk Factors (7)
*Hypercholessterolemia ( > or equal to 200 mg/dl total or > oet 130 for LDL or HDL < 40
(Low HDL's is not Hyperchol.)
*Smoking or those who quit within 6 months
*Hypertension (> oet 140/90)
*Obesity ( > oet 30kg/m2)
*Physical Inactivity
*Impaired fasting Glucose (> oet 100 mg/dl )
*Family Hx (CVD b-4 55 for first degree male relative and b-4 65 for female.
Most desirable LDL concentration
less than 100 mg/dL
AVR + AVF + AVL In your EKG should equal
Lead I + Lead III =
Lead II
Left axis Deviation lies between what degrees?
-90 and 0
BP is taken over what artery?
Brachial Artery
All the following increase after endurance training except
a)Max HR
b)Max SV
c)Max Vo2
d)Max avo2 diff
a)Max HR
Adaptations of endurance training ----- your parasympathetic activity
RPP is and indirect measurement of
Myocardial oxygen consumption
PNS stimulates the SA Node through the
Vagus nerve
Kindney tests
Createine and BUN (Blood urea nitrogen)
Liver tests
Bilirubin, SGOT, and SGPT
Chatecholamines can inervate the AV node and ----- the HR
6 months of aerobic training does what to your vo2?
Has no effect
DBP is an indirect measurement of
MAP= CO * TPR is the direct or indirect way?
Pulse Pressure (PP)=
Rate Pressure Product (RPP)=
(SBP *HR) / 100
MAP indirect equation when HR < 100 =
[ 1/3 (SBP -DBP) + DBP ]
MAP indirect equation when HR > oet 100 =
[ 1/2 (SBP -DBP) + DBP ]
SBP gives and idirect measurement of
Cardiac Output
Calculate BMI
Take lbs/2.2 (Kg)

Take height in inches and * by 2.54 then / by 100 then square it (m^2)

Take both those #'s and do KG/m^2

Only round at the very end
BMI Criteria:
Obese Class 1
Obese Class 2
Extremely Obese
Normal 18.5 - 24.9
Overwgt. 25 - 29.9
Obese Class 1 30 - 34.9
Obese Class 2 35 - 39.9
Extremely Obese > oet 40
Low Risk is...
Moderate Risk is...
High Risk is ...
* Youger asymptomatic no more than 1 RF
*Older individuals (men greater than oet 45 or women greater than oet 55) who have 2 or more RFs
*Individuals with one ore more signs/symptoms of CVD metabolic disease or pulmonary disease
What are the three methods used to calculate HR using an EKG
Small box method
Large box method
6 second method
Equation for small box method
1500 / # of small boxes between two R waves
Equation for Large box method
300 / # of large boxes between two R waves
How to use 6 second method
*Use two hash marks (each hash mark is 3 seconds)
*Get as many R waves in as you can by sliding graph over then count them(always starting at zero)
*Multiply that number by 10
*Answer is in BPM
When looking for transition zone on the EKG what do you look for if there is no biphasic wave?
The lead with the R wave that has the highest amplitude wether it is a neg or pos deflection
When getting mean axis deviation degrees look for the biphasic wave in which leads?
Limb leads
Normal P wave is how many boxes in the duration axis and how many seconds?
3 small boxes .12 Sec
The amplitude of the P wave should not exceed?
2.5 mm