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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Controver of HRT
decreases CVD...(now they say it doesn't)
increases cancer and other things.

Recommened with age: 1 asprin 81 mg
What is heart disease?
it is not fixable
#1 killer in the US
is preventaable called........the "disease of lifestyle"
What are monmodifiable and modifiable of heart disease
Modifiable: 1:1 correlation, smoking, increase cholesterol, Hypertention, physical inactivity

non modifiable: gender, male...age, family history, race: african american (increased risk) increased blood pressure means increased CRD
male pattern baldness......hormones responsible for baldness similar to those respondent to stress (cortisol)
Benefits of Exercise
physical activity decreases CRD.....if you have a heart attack and was physically active prior you have a better since of survivial.
WOmen and cvd
women get cvd at older age b/c supported by estrogen.

Average Age Menopause-50 yrs
usually 60 for onset of cvd
Estrogen is part of production of HDL
good cholesterol

women are more likely to have a heart have 2nd heart attack if have bypass Heart Attack, less likely to survive.
men vs woman
dr take men more seriously then women
What is heart disease?
a progressive disease tht starts early around 4.....although now show until later.
You get injury to lemen of artery over time...stress, smoking, diabetes, increase BP plaque comes along to attack and attach to walls..little by little they close up
Symtoms of no complete blockage?
Warning signs that "something isn't right"
shortness of breath, upset stomach, nausea, pressure in chest, "elephant sitting on chest" numbness in L or R arm, indigestion, numbness in jaw, sweaty, extreme fatigue
Prevention for heart disease
look at risk factors.........have cholesterol and BP checked.
Tests for heart disease
EKG and stress test (GXT)
What is EKG
Rhythm and electrical stimulation-may not show problems that occur under exertion.
Stress test
GXT (graded exercise test)
inject with radioisotope to heart..take she how blood profuces to heart.......then EKG....and walk on treadmill...inject readioisotope @ max exerisee to compare non stressed and stressed. Postive test is bad......Stress test looks at BP, HR and rhythm of heart
What is a cardiac cath?
through groin into vasculature into heart-pictures of blockage of cornary arteries.
after beta blockers are not managing welll.. (for BP, HR decreasement) you might need this.

opens up artery stents...keep artery open from closing.

Drug alluding stents-drug with stents that stop resriosis..believed to decrease blockage.
Go from least invasive to most invasive
Stress test death are stastically set at 1/20,000.

Location of blockage is very important once tissure is dead its gone. Heart and Brain do not regenerate.
What to do if someone is having a heart attack
rest...stop what doing...lay 911.........give one asprin
What is congestive heart failure?
injury to heart......heart muscle is efficient.blood backs up...fluid in lungs..shortness of breath, swelling of arms and legs...drowning in own fluid....RECOGNIZE SYMPTOMS...lanoxin and direuretic.
What is max aerobic capacity..
at 25( higgest level) after 25, 1 percent of capacity per year. Can increase aerobic activity up to 30 percent at (30 years)
advantages outweigh disadv.
Most prevalent risk is musculoskeletal injury....

muscle fiber decreases with age. Muscle protein decreases too.
What decreases w/ age
nervous system-37 percent decrease in number of spinal cord axons

10 percent decrease in nerve conduction velocity (Brain to action..action to brain is slower)

Heart rate decreases w/ age.
Body fat increases w/ age.
STUDY by harvard ALUMNI
17,000 firads (1916-1950) assessed exercised. People who moderately exercised added years...1/4 to 1/3 lower than sedentary counter parts. Those who took exercise to extremes had death rate increased (from sedentary counter parts)
Stephen Blair Study
13,000 m and w followed for 8 yrs...risk for everything....decreased when small amount of exercise was done.
least fit group had 3 X increase then most fit...

Greastes health benefit: sendetary to moderate's never to late..a little will help
lack of oxygen to tissue.. then you get and demand...demand is increased more then heart can supply.

Risk factors: poor eating habits, cholesterol, diabetes, stress
increase risk for CVD. for every 1 percent decrease in cholesterol you get a decrease risk for CVD
know your total c-lower then200
LDL bad cholesterol
What does HDL do?
packages up LDL for transport
keep LDL low and HDL high
smoking decreases HDL and exerise increases HDL

Alcohol increases HDL
Exericse lowers LDL
Alcohol lowers LDL

advoid staurated fat...animal products..cheese milk
What can we do to manage cholesterol?
weight control
aerobic exercise
eat high fiber foods
increase level of fish oil
You want your BP to be lower then:
140/90 (lower then this)

normal 120/80

to control High BP..stop smoking, weight control and sodium, exercise. Meds if needed.
Largest prediction of heart disease

exerise, type a personality
sed lifestyle
reduce stress
Diabetes and CVD
Type II diabetes for CVD...30 percent increase for amputation/blindness, stroke, kidney disease, cognitive decline,

Risks: single parent, older then 45, bmi higher then 25, sedentary, black, latino, native, american, hawiian, hypertensive, weight control, Aerobic 30 min a day...ADD Fiber.
Signs of Diabetes
frequent urination, thirst, hunger, weight loss, fatigue, irritability, blurred vision, some or no symptoms.
How do we lower mardical rate?
through beta blockers
high rate of reclosing (30 to 40 percent)
Invasive (major) stays 10 to 15 years..assuming they make lifestyle changes...takes artery from leg or radial. HD does not go away.
From the mouth to anus is 29 feet long.
it breaks down food, digests it, and absorbs by the GI wall. when absorbed becomes usefull.
What is mechanical????
chew food...churning of food in stomach.
What is chemical?
when enzymes and chemicals break down and is absorbed into the digestive track.
Masication is ground into small bits.
What causes digestion, absorption??
GI tract
What metabolizes
all cells in body
what are the 4 layers of the GI?
what is the mycosa?
used for absorption and secretion
what is submucosa?
nerves blood flow
What is muscularis
perastalsis-allows movement around GI tract
What is serosa?
made up of connective tissue and peritoneum..(lie within peritoneal cavity.
Roof of your mouth
is called the "soft pallate" Tastebuds!!!!!!!!!!!!
(uvula) prevents food from going into naval cavity.
What is a hard pallate
hard on top of mouth
What is your tongue?
skeletal muscle covered w/ mucas membranes
What is underneath your tongue?
Frendulum-if it is too small you have problems speaking.
Bumps on tongue?

largest bumps are called Ballate

tastebuds are on th back of the tongue.
4 types of teeth
incisors-tearing (inside-back)
What is a bolus of food?
ball of food going down
Teeth info.
20 teeth
36 Permanent teeth

cut a tooth -6 months
lose 1st tooth-6 yrs
what is a crown, neck, and root?
covered by enamel (hardest substance in the body)

Neck is above gum

root is below gum
Disorder of Mouth
Cancer-chewing tabacco
large alchol intake

lip cancer-exposure to sun

tooth decay, dental cavaties, gingivitis (infection of gums) bad breath..Periodontal Disease-Periodontics
depends on metabolism

take caloris/9 X 35 gives you fat grams
Get a variety so you are not deficent
Nutrition numbers
Cholesterol-300 mg per day or less more then 2400 mg
fiber -20-35
What is the salivary gland?
outside GI tract connected to ducts that drop saliva in mouth
parotib gland
largest of the paired salivary glands. produce a watery, or serous, type of saliva containing enzymes but not mucas.
submandibular gland
contain enzyme and mucas producing elements
Sublingual Glands
is the smallest of the slivary glands. produces saliva!!
What is a carbohydrate?
Glucose C6H1206

simple sugar..pixie stick
200 in nature glucose,frutose, glactose

Glucose: blood sugar; dextrose

when we eat a carb it breaks into glucose and is absorbed in small intestine.
Carbos are:
directly by cell for energy
store in muscle and liver glycogen
excess carbohydrate store as fat
What is frutose?
fruit sugar (fruits, honey
What is glucatose?
producedin mammery glands of lactation.
2 sugars
Glucose and Frucose
Sucrose (and salt)
Glucose and Glactose
lactose (Milk)

what is marketed as sugar-nutrasweet
aspercane (nutrasweet)(sold as powder)
4 calories per gram (concentrations: true sugar you need more.
low blood sugar
3 or more sugar
plant/animal saccrides
Plant (starch)
glucose put together ex. grain, beans, peas
Fiber 25 to 35 mg
cannot be digested by tract..not absorbed by small intestine

insoluable fiber increase fecal bulk
with age it changes
decrease risk for colon cancer
soluable fiber
Carbohydrate...decreases cholesterol enters bloodstream and blood serium cholesterol
ex. fruits, lagoons, oats and barley
Typical 10 mg do not exceed 40 mg (metamucill 4 g) could cause gastric (gradual)
Animal Glycogen
10,000 strung together
can't store lots of carbs
muscles (325)
liver 100
circulation 25
blood 1900
energy supplier
glucose used for energy
stored as energy for glycogen
Protein sparrer-do not want to use this (aneroxia)

metabolic primer (krebs cycle)
encyme to break down fat.

fuel for CNS