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69 Cards in this Set

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What is hypokinetic diseases?
Physical Inactivity. Can cause deterioration of the heart and circulatory system, muscles, bones, and various body processes.
No Moving
Atherosclerosis is?
The deposition of cholesterol and other lipids along the inside of the arterial walls, causes MOST heart attacks and strokes.
Heart Attacks and Strokes
Leading cause of death in the United States.
Diseases of the heart
Beat Beat Beat
Controllable Risk Factors
Cig Smoking, High blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, physical inactivity, obesity and overweight, diabetes mellitus
Uncontrollable Risk Factors
Increasing age, male sex, race, heredity
Aerobic fitness is?
The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygen to the working muscles and the ability of the muscles to utilize oxygen to continue work or exercise.
Aerobic means "__ ___ ___ ___ ___"
In the presence of oxygen
Aerobic exercises are?
cycling, rowing, cross country skiing, and stair stepping
Can use large muscle groups and can be done continuously.
Aerobic Exercises
Anaerobic means " ___ __ ___ __ ___"
In the absence of oxygen
Activites of anaerobic exercise is?
sprinting, weight lifting, calisthenics, and many sports
Measurement of expired gases is called?
indirect calorimetry
What represents a level of performance that provides some degree of protection from hypokinetic diseases.
The Healthy Fitness Zone
Exercise prescription refers to the number of days per week?
How much you do something
refers to the level of the exercise, or how hard you work out.
a widely used model to estimate exercise heart rate
Percent of maximum heart rate reserve model
Estimate maximum heart rate by?
220-age=beats per minute
A measure of exertion used to gauge exercise intensity and for exercise testing and prescription.
rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
Refers to how many minutes you exercise per session
how much
Refers to the increase in exercise requirements as fitness improves.
Three stages of the prescription for aerobic exercise.
initial conditioning stage, improvement conditioning stage, and maintenance conditioning stage
Over ___ percent of the US adult population is classified as being overweight.
Body Mass Index is?
method that evaluates a persons weight to height ratio and is expressed in kg/m^2
Advantages of BMI
simple to obtain accurate measurements and it is easy to train others to make the assessment
Disadvantage of BMI
BMI does not differentiate between fat and fat free body mass
False positive in BMI is
Have a high BMI and a low body fat level
False Negative in BMI is
Have a normal BMI but have too much body fat.
Body composition refers to
relative percentages of different tissues within the body.
Fat free mass is composed of ____?
water, muscle, bone, connective tissues, and internal organs
Fat mass is composed of ___?
Fat tissue within the body
Percent fat indicates?
thepercent of body weight that is fat.
Recommendations for weight loss. (3)
1. Choose the program that is right for you
2. Choose a program that is reasonable in terms of what you have to do to be successful and safe
3. Choose a program that is able to document long term results
Successful weight loss and weight maintenance.
Caloric rstriction, exercise, and resistance training
Amount of force a muscle can exert or resist in a single maximum effort.
Muscular Strength
Ability to repeatedly exert force over a period of time, thereby resisting fatigue
Muscular Endurance
Overload Principle
Muscle is overworked harder then it is normally accustomed to working, the muscle will respond to the work by beoming stronger and more efficient.
Repition is
one movement or exercise
a Set is
a specific number of repition of that particular exercise.
Term used to describe the increase in muscle size that is a result of strength training
Chronis means? transient means?
lasts a long time, comes and goes
Occurs during and/or immediatly following a resistance training exercise.
Transient Hypertrophy
Muscles can atrophy meaning?
Decrease in siz if they are not used.
Improvement in muscular endurance is achieved using _________.
Lighter resistance and a greater number of repititions.
Isometric training defined as?
a muscular contraction with no change in the middle length.
(iso= same, metric=measure)
Isotonic training occurs when?
A contracting muscle changes length against a constant load.
(iso=same, tonic=tension)
The elongation of the muscle is the _____ phase of concentration.
The ____ phase of contraction occurs when a muscle shortens.
Isokinetic training refers to?
The contraction of a muscle performed at a constant rate of speed
(iso=same, kinetic=movement)
Commonly used in rehabilitation and sports medicine setting.
Isokinetic training
The ability to move through a full range of motion.
Static stretching is
one of the safest methods of stretching. refers to holding a position without movement, it is slow and sustained.
Ballistic Stretching is
characterized by bouncing while you stretch
Estimates suggest that ___ of the population does not achieve recommended physical activity. ____ of the population is sedentary. ___ of all individuals who start an exercise program quit.
60%, 40%, 50%
Exercise motives can be.
Social, recreational, and enjoyment
Exercise barriers
all the factors that make exercise participation difficult and unattractive.
SMART goals!! ***
Action Oriented
Time frame-short and long term
Increasing physical activity levels requires behavior change. (ABC)
A=Antecedants to
B=Behavior to
Events that come before a certan behavior and stimulate a person to act in a certain way.
Consequences are?
Events that come after the behavior and influence whether a certain behavior is repeated.
Reinforcers are?
any consequences that increase the probability that a person will repeat a certain behavior.
Include any consequence that decreases the probability a person will repeat a certain behavior.
Association occurs when ___.
individuals "tune in" to what their body is feeling and internal sensations such as heart rate, breathing, and how their muscles feel.
Occurs when a person tunes out sensory feedback. Individuals may watch tv or talk to others to distract themselves from how they feel.
Stressors are
any real or imagined event that places a demand on us and requires change and adaptation.
Involve the mind and body. Diseases.
Psychosomatic diseases.
The internal dialogue that is on-going in the back of our mind.
Results in physiological changes that are directly opposite of the stress reaction.
Relaxation response
Three types of relaxation techniques.
breath control, muscle relaxation, mental relaxation
A technique used to change a persons outlook on a stressful situation by creating alternative or different ways of looking at the stress producing circumstances.