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71 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the 4 types of bones
long
short
flat
irregular
femur & bones of the fingers (phalanges); are much longer than they are wide, generally consisting of a shaft with heads at either end, composed predominately of compact bone
long bones
typically cubed shaped & they contain more spongy bone than compact bone; tarsals & carpals
short bones
generally thin with 2 waferlike layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them; many are curved, such as the bones of the skull
flat bones
bones that do not fall into one of the 3 categories are classified here; verebrae
irregular
enlongated shaft of a long bone
diaphysis
the end of a long bone, attached to the shaft
epiphysis
hyaline cartilage covering bone end at moveable joints
articular cartilage
small rounded projection or process
rubercle
a furrow
sulcus
narrow ridge of bone, normally promident
crest
rounded or oval opening through a bone
foramen
dense outer layer of bone
compact bone
cancellous bone; internal layer of skeletal bone, speckled looking
spongy bone
central cavity of bone; inside tunnel
medullary cavity
"around the bone"
periosteum (location)
internal, inside the bone
endosteum (location)
forms the long axis of the body & includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column & rib cage; bones mostly involved in protecting, supporting or carrying other body parts
axial skeleton
consists of the bones of the upper & lower limbs & the girdles (should bones & hip bones) that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton; locomotion (limbs help us to get from place to place) & to manipulate our environment
appendicular skeleton
rounded articular projection; in the jaw where is hinges
condyle
narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent
crest
raised area on or above a condyle
eipcondyle
smooth, nearly flat articular surface; end of a rib by the head
facet
narrow, slit like opening
fissure
indentations between the bones of the fetal skull
fontanel
round or oval opening through a bone; on the cheek area under the eye
foramen
shallow, basin like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface; side of head behind ear where it curves inward-
fossa
cavity/depression on bone, small circle;
fovea
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
head
canal like passageway; under the ear
meatus
skinny part under the head
neck
prominance or projection
process
space within a bone; filled with air & lined
sinus
sharp, slender, often pointed projection
spine
immovable fibrous joint; with one exception, all bones of the skull are united by sutures
suture
furrow, line, groove
sulcus
small rounded projection or pocess;
tubercle
large rounded projection; may be roughened; tibia of leg
tuberosity
very large, blunt, irregular shaped process (only examples are on the femur)
trochanter
freely moveable joint;
diarthroses
a slightly moveable joint
amphiarthrosis
immovable joint
synarthroses
bone ends/parts united by collagen fibers; stronger than cartilaginous;
fibrous
an immovable fibrous joint; with one exception all bones of the skull are united by this
suture
a completely ossified joint; a fused joint
synostosis
bones united by ligaments
syndesmosis
Example of fibrous suture
skull; cranial & facial bones
Example of fibrous synostosis
connection between vertebrae & rib
Example of fibrous syndesmosis
connection between each vertebrae
peg in a socket type of fibrous structural
gomphosis
Example of fibrous gomphosis
teeth embedded in socket
bone ends/parts united by cartilage
cartilagionous
Example of cartilagionous synchondrosis
connection between ribs & sternum
Example of cartilaginous symphysis
pubic bones
a joint in which the bones are connected by fibrocartilage
symphysis
bone ends/parts covered with articular cartilage; membrane
synovial
Name 6 times of synovial joints
plane
hinge
pivot
condyloid
ssaddle
ball & socket
Example of synovial plane
vertebrae
Example of synovial hinge
ulna & (radius) with humerus
Example of synovial pivot
radius & ulna
Example of synovial condyloid
radius & proximal carpals
Example of synovial saddle
sternum & clavicle
Example of synovial ball & socket
scapula & humerus
Knee joint is what?
diarthrosis
A symphysis is functionally what type of joint?
amphiarthrotic joints - strength with flexibility; symphyses=growing together
flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane & containing a thin flim of synovial fluid; where ligaments, muslces, skin, tendons & bone rub together
bursa
special types of short bones formed in tendons; patellas (knee caps)
sesamoid bones
structural bones are tiny bones between cranial bones
wormian bones
Shoulder joint is what?
synovial; ball & socket
Elbow joint is what?
synovial; hinge & pivot
Hip joint is what?
synovial; ball & socket (connecting the hip bone & femur)