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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Business planning is:

A. Tactical

B. Short range

C. Detailed

D. Completed by top management
D. Completed by top management
Closed-loop means:

A. Never chasing

B. Master scheduling is independent of other activities

C. Activities are best confined to a smaller inner circle

D. Activities are integrated
D. Activities are integrated
Which of the following represents the four-step process for planning and control?

A. Measure, plan, correct, execute

B. Execute, measure, correct, plan

C. Plan, execute, measure, correct

D. Plan, execute, correct, measure
C. Plan, execute, measure, correct
The objectives of the MPC system are maximizing customer service, limiting inventory investment and which of the following?

A. Authorizing work to be released.

B. Maintaining high operating efficiencies

C. Developing human resources

D. Providing detailed material plans
B. Maintaining high operating efficiencies
Planning interfaces are:

A. Interactions that facilitate the planning and control of production activitiy

B. The systems, plans and methods of communicating and executing activities on the shop floor.

C. Variations in schedules

D. Status reports
A. Interactions that facilitate the planning and control of production activitiy
Which of the following best describes the process of master scheduling?

A. Determining in detail the amount of labor and machine resources required to accomplish the tasks of production

B. Creating, reviewing and approving the master production schedule

C. Setting the overall level of manufacturing output

D. Establishing the overall objectives and goals of the MPC system
B. Creating, reviewing and approving the master production schedule
The connections between production activity control and the rest of the MPC system are which of the following?

A. Capacity plan and the business plan

B. Material plan (MRP)

C. Capacity plan

D. Capacity and material plans
D. Capacity and material plans
Cellular manufacturing can also be described as:

A. Type of process

B. Linear flow layout

C. Functional organization

D. Pull system
A. Type of process
Which of the following is a type of flow manufacturing?

A. Repetitive

B. Continuous

C. Batch Flow

D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Which of the following best defines the process of capacity requirements planning?

A. Determining in detail the amount of labor and machine resources required to accommplish the requirements schedule

B. Establishing the overall objectives and goals of the MPC system

C. Determining the date that the components and materials are required

D. Determining the quantity of all components and materials
A. Determining in detail the amount of labor and machine resources required to accommplish the requirements schedule
Planned and actual lead times:

A. Should always be the same

B. Should be compared for corrective actions

C. Have no bearing on each other

D. Should be extended to ensure on-time delivery
B. Should be compared for corrective actions
Which of the following is an informal method of sequencing production that disrupts priority sequencing?

A. Fewest operations

B. Slack time

C. Dispatch lists

D. Informal hot lists
D. Informal hot lists
Which of the following best describes a work center with actual output greater than planned output?

A. Very good

B. Running ahead of schedule

C. Lacking capacity

D. Short of material
B. Running ahead of schedule
Which of the following best describes finite loading?

A. Plans how much capacity is needed

B. Calculates maximum resource requirements

C. Is performed at every level of the planning and control process

D. Limits load to available resources
D. Limits load to available resources
Which of the following is a project scheduling technique?

A. Finite loading

B. Forward scheduling

C. Critical path method (CPM)

D. Mixed-model scheduling
C. Critical path method (CPM)
Which of the following best describes mixed-model scheduling?

A. Aims to produce some of every item every day

B. Randomly produces products

C. Produces some models for next year while making this years models

D. All of the above
A. Aims to produce some of every item every day
Priorities must be established and revised to reflect which of the following?

A. Shop conditions

B. Material availability

C. Customer needs

D. All of the above
D. All of the above
The benefits of preventive and predictive maintenance are increased flexibility, flow improvements and which of the following?

A. Reduced material handling

B. Increased planning horizons

C. Decreased schedule accuracy

D. Prioritization
A. Reduced material handling
The critical path method is a network scheduling technique for determing which of the following?

A. Expected project start

B. Expected project completion

C. Times for each activity

D. Priority
B. Expected project completion
Which of the following best describes synchronous scheduling?

A. Works well for make to order manufacturing

B. Does not depend on smooth production flow

C. Output rate is determined by the system constraint

D. Will not work for make to stock products
C. Output rate is determined by the system constraint
Within a push system, products are released and pushed through production based on which of the following?

A. Production schedule

B. Kanban

C. Capcity requirements

D. Material availability
A. Production schedule
Which of the following is an assumption within a push system?

A. The receiving work center is not ready for the material when it arrives

B. The receiving work center authorizes material to be sent

C. The receiving work center is ready for the material when it arrives

D. The receiving work center does not have the capacity to receive incoming material
C. The receiving work center is ready for the material when it arrives
Authorization of order release is based on which of the following?

A. Current priority

B. availability of material and tooling

C. Planned orders in the MRP output

D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Resource availability must be checked in order to prevent which of the following?

A. Decreased throughput time

B. Due date accuracy

C. Lead-time validity

D. Increased queues
D. Increased queues
Material availability checks to consider:

A. Balances on-hand

B. Exception reports

C. Quantities allocated to other orders

D. Balances on hand and quantities allocated to other orders
D. Balances on hand and quantities allocated to other orders
Dispatch lists:

A. May consider more than one factor to establish job sequences at a work center

B. Must be followed absolutely

C. Should be revised in 'real-time'

D. Will not work for make to order products.
A. May consider more than one factor to establish job sequences at a work center
Material reporting includes each of the following except:

A. Storeroom receipts and issues

B. Location trnasfers

C. WIP scrap, reowrk and yield losses

D. Actual setup and run times
D. Actual setup and run times
Which of the following are hurdles to effective shop floor control?

A. Lack of valid due dates

B. Lack of good management and measurement by shop managers

C. Lack of valid data

D. All of the above
D. All of the above
When applied to dispatching, priority determination techniques must have four characteristics. Which of the following is one of those characteristics?

A. Aggression

B. Complexity

C. Simplicity

D. Inaccurracy
C. Simplicity
Which of the following is a reason to avoid staging?

A. Inaccurate inventory data

B. Overload detection

C. Ineffective kanban usage

D. Readiness for movement
A. Inaccurate inventory data
Which explanation best describes why a pull system works well in a structured enviroment?

A. The source of incoming material is consistent

B. Production is based on a schedule

C. Decision making is centralized

D. Emphasis is on producing as much as possible
A. The source of incoming material is consistent
Which is an objective of a pull system?

A. Establish due dates

B. Increase throughout time

C. Assign priority to orders

D. Limit total inventory
D. Limit total inventory
A pull system can be applied in which of the following enviroments?

A. Only repetitive enviroments

B. Only job shops

C. Any enviroment where production activities fall within defined limits

D. All enviroments
C. Any enviroment where production activities fall within defined limits
Which of the following statements is true?

A. Priority is not inherently established within a pull system

B. a work center takes its cue to produce output from the previous work center

C. A pull system can operate autonomously and has low data processing and communication expenses.

D. The needs of warehouses are considered within the pull system
C. A pull system can operate autonomously and has low data processing and communication expenses.
Which of the following is a characteristic of pull systems?

A. Unorganized structure

B. Standard lot sizes

C. Speciailized applications

D. Loads specified by input/output planning
B. Standard lot sizes
Which characteristic is true of kanban methodology?

A. It is an alternative to MRP II systems

B. It is a magic potion

C. signals are used to start production

D. It embodies flow production and JIT concepts
C. signals are used to start production
Brand-name kanban cards authorize:

A. What to replenish

B. When to replenish

C. Both what and when to replenish

D. None of the above
C. Both what and when to replenish
Which of the following rules are for a two-card kanban system?

A. Use only one card per container

B. Return the move card immediately

C. Leave production card at supply point

D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Which of the following statements is a reason to simplify documentation in a pull system?

A. Material and tooling availability is not visible

B. Detailed routing information is not necessary

C. System automatically reacts to mix considerations

D. Production information is maintained at an inaccessible location
B. Detailed routing information is not necessary
Which characteristic is more desirable for controlling production within a pull system?

A. Flexible capability

B. Cycle counts

C. Periodic inventory checks

D. Management performance check
A. Flexible capability
Which explanation best describes the major cause of customer-supplier disputes?

A. Lack of internet access

B. Poor production scheduling

C. Poor delivery and service

D. Poor communication and subsequent cooperation to solve problems
D. Poor communication and subsequent cooperation to solve problems
The focus of an ideal customer-supplier relationship is on learning which one of the following?

A. Concerns

B. Capabilities

C. Wants

D. All of the above
D. All of the above
For optimal levels of information sharing between the customer and supplier, which situation should be in place?

A. Supplier's management is integrated into customer's operations

B. Customer and supplier work independently

C. Supplier is fully integrated into customer's operations

D. Customer and supplier communicate only when necessary
C. Supplier is fully integrated into customer's operations
What type of data communication should be utilized to control the shop floor?

A. Irrelevant and out of date

B. Timely and accurate

C. Excessive and abundant

D. Erroneous, but up to date
B. Timely and accurate
Which of the following groups reflects principles of effective item identification?

A. Randomness, conciseness, number reuse

B. Uniqueness, uniformity in length and composition, expansion

C. Assignment of responsibility, only one number for all uses, irregular patterns

D. Short, alphabetical, comprehensible
B. Uniqueness, uniformity in length and composition, expansion
Which of the following best represents an objective of controlling storage?

A. Minimizing non-value added time

B. Providing up to date data

C. Planning due dates

D. Facilitating communication flow
A. Minimizing non-value added time
Effective use of containerization facilitates which of the following?

A. Material use

B. Effective storage practices

C. Transportation

D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Which of the following inventory location methods requires the use of a locator file to identify parts locations?

A. Random location

B. Preassigned location

C. Zoned location

D. Two bin systems
A. Random location
If inventory is stored near the operation where it is used, what storage technique is being utilized?

A. Two-bin system

B. Point of use

C. Kanban

D. EDI
B. Point of use
In a JIT enviroment, reducing shipment size and receiving and delivering shipments more frequently will result in which of the following?

A. Reducing total acquisition costs

B. Increased inspection

C. Increased handling damage

D. Reduced quality
A. Reducing total acquisition costs
Cause and effect analyses are made with the help of which of the following?

A. Fishbone chart

B. Statistical process control method

C. Critical path method

D. Pareto analysis
A. Fishbone chart
Quality at the source suggests that the quality of the product is determined at the instant the product is made. If this is true, then which of the following is also true?

A. The idea of the external customer leads to the concept of quality at the surce.

B. Inspection is not necessary

C. Quality is not the manufacturer's responsibility

D. Quality should be the responsibility of one department within the company
B. Inspection is not necessary
Which of the following statements is true?

A. Quality is considered a competitive advantage.

B. The cost of quality should deter organizations from implementing quality initiatives.

C. Quality is considered necessary for survival

D. Higher market shares are not a result of high quality standards.
C. Quality is considered necessary for survival
Who must be involved with continuous improvement efforts?

A. Upper mangement

B. Production line workers

C. Upper and middle mangement

D. All personnel
D. All personnel
Before beginning a continuous improvement program, you must consider the industry, product lines, supplier base, human resource capabilities, customer's organizational culture and which of the following?

A. Inventory levels

B. Scheduling capacity

C. Technical capabilities

D. Hours worked per day
C. Technical capabilities
Waste can be defined as:

A. The effective use of resources

B. The development of cross-trained employees

C. The process of eliminating inventory

D. The use of resources in excess of the theoretical minimum
D. The use of resources in excess of the theoretical minimum
Employee empowerment is the practice of:

A. Holding non-managerial employees responsible for their mistakes

B. Providing managers with absolute authority over non-managerial employees

C. Giving non-managerial employees the responsibility to make decisions

D. Hiring non-managerial and managerial employees based on an objective performance test.
C. Giving non-managerial employees the responsibility to make decisions
A small group of people who normally work as a unit and meet frequently to uncover and solve problems concerning the quality of items produced is most likely called a:

A. Quality paradigm

B. Quality circle

C. Process improvement collage

D. Self-directed work committee
B. Quality circle
Which of the following is NOT a quality management planning tool?

A. Asset diagram

B. Affinity diagram

C. Process improvement collage

D. Self-directed work committee
A. Asset diagram
A pareto chart can be used to:

A. Classify quality problems as either internal or external

B. Determine the root cause of quality problems

C. Rank causes of quality problems from the most to least significant

D. Eliminate visual signs that alert workers to defective parts
C. Rank causes of quality problems from the most to least significant
Recognizing process improvement opportunities may be difficult because:

A. They are part of daily routine

B. The goal of zero waste is impossible to acheive

C. Coordination of independent priorities can be completed with ease

D. None of the above
A. They are part of daily routine
Reducing lot size helps to acheive which of the following?

A. Improved inventory accuracy

B. Decreased ability to respond to change

C. Improved process flows

D. Increased manufacturing lead times
C. Improved process flows
In the ideal organized work enviroment, which of the following is true?

A. Layouts are complex, but flexible

B. Movement is minimized

C. Visibility is minimized

D. Handling is maximized
B. Movement is minimized
Which of the following best describes the function of the one less at a time process?

A. Mnimize movement between customers and suppliers

B. Expose constraints by putting pressure on the system

C. Reduce lead time

D. Increase communications between the customer and supplier
B. Expose constraints by putting pressure on the system
Which of the following must be reduced in order to reduce the total amount of elapsed movement time from supplier to customer?

A. The time that material is waiting to be released in the factory

B. The transit time from supplier to the factory

C. The transit time from the factory to the customer

D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Which of the following is a technique that helps to create an effective inventory reporting system?

A. One less at a time

B. Matrix charts

C. Taguchi method

D. Pre-deduct transaction processing
D. Pre-deduct transaction processing
Which of the following explains why reporting becomes difficult in a JIT enviroment?

A. Within the production environment, there are slow-moving batches

B. Each production element is too short to measure

C. There is little variation within the production environment

D. None of the above
B. Each production element is too short to measure
Which of the following steps comprise the process for carrying out the project-by-project approach?

A. Verifying the project need, developing a hypothesis and collecting data

B. Evaluating the problem, completing the housekeeping checklist and ensuring that the kanban levels are marked

C. Collecting data, analyzing data, interpreting data and diagnosing the problem

D. Verifying the project need and mission, diagnosing the causes, providing a remedy and providing its effectiveness, delaing with resistance to change and instituting controls to hold gains
D. Verifying the project need and mission, diagnosing the causes, providing a remedy and providing its effectiveness, delaing with resistance to change and instituting controls to hold gains
Which of the following reuslts from rapid movement of material?

A. Cuases increases in work in process inventory

B. Reduces the capacity to handle transaction input

C. Simplifies accounts payable

D. Fixes sporadic problems
B. Reduces the capacity to handle transaction input
Dramatic setup reductions will be acheived by which of the following?

A. Reducing transaction reporting

B. Eliminating movement between customers and suppliers

C. Taking one step at a time

D. Using the pareto chart
C. Taking one step at a time
Customer satisfaction is achieved through which two components?

A. Product features and internal customers

B. Fitness for use and external customers

C. External customers and freedom from deficiencies

D. Product features and freedom from deficiencies
D. Product features and freedom from deficiencies
Which of the following is not a quality perspective?

A. Market

B. Design

C. Purchasing

D. Service
C. Purchasing
A statistical control chart distinguishes between special and common cause variation through which of the following?

A. Distribution curve

B. Sample size

C. Histogram

D. Control limits
D. Control limits
Which of the following best describes the concept of variation?

A. Prioritization can reduce variability

B. Control is achieved through statistical process control

C. Defects and variability interfere with control

D. No two items are exactly alike
D. No two items are exactly alike
The difference between special and common cause variation is which of the following?

A. The source of special cause variation is assignable, whereas the source of common cause variation is random.

B. They both affect the stability of the control porcess.

C. Special cause variation is more predictable than common cause variation.

D. Common cause variation leads to unstable variation, whereas special cause variation leads to a stable environment
A. The source of special cause variation is assignable, whereas the source of common cause variation is random.
Which of the following best describes acceptance sampling?

A. The numerical magnatude of a characteristic

B. The disposition and quality of a product.

C. The process of inspecting an entire lot.

D. The process of sampling a portion of goods for inspection.
D. The process of sampling a portion of goods for inspection.
SPC is a technique that:

A. Helps prevent defects from occurring while a product is being produced.

B. Uses statistics to plan for preventitive maintenance activities

C. Uses quality function deployment

D. Focuses on product inspection
A. Helps prevent defects from occurring while a product is being produced.
Which of the following is calculated using statistics?

A. Number of kanbans in a production system

B. Histogram

C. Control limits

D. Lot size
C. Control limits
A process capability analysis provides which of the following?

A. Quantified prediction of process adequacy

B. Performance summary

C. Common cause variation
A. Quantified prediction of process adequacy
Which of the following best describes the basis of product acceptance?

A. Disposition and quality of the product

B. Process adequacy

C. Common cause variation

D. Acceptance sampling
A. Disposition and quality of the product
Efficiency and utilization:

A. Cannot be over-emphasized

B. Are the best measures of PAC effectiveness

C. Are measures of productivity

D. Are useless measures
C. Are measures of productivity
Which of the following is the most effective way to measure performance?

A. Comparing last years performance to planned performance

B. Evaluating inventory efficiency

C. Comparing actual performance to planned performance

D. Evaluating assets valuation
C. Comparing actual performance to planned performance
Process costing:

A. Focuses on total work center costs

B. Determines actual costs for each individual part

C. Uses order number

D. Requires more reporting than job order costing
A. Focuses on total work center costs
Within a data collection system, data collectors manage data effectively and ensure that all actions are taken to update the data. If this is valid in a given collection system, then which of the following must also be true?

A. Additional control procedures are needed.

B. Performance reports are not needed

C. Cross checking is not necessary

D. Cross checking is necessary
C. Cross checking is not necessary
Schedule performance is measured at the:

A. Workstation level only

B. Work center level only

C. Department and plant levels

D. Work center, department and plant levels
D. Work center, department and plant levels
Clearly defining the work center allows which of the following to be developed?

a. process capability
b. verstility
c. performance objectives and measures.
d. level loads
c. performance objectives and measures.
Knowing the amount of capacity available facilitates changes to which of the following?

a. human performance
b. equipment efficiency
c. throughtput time
d. scheduling
d. scheduling
If inventory records are inaccurate, which of the following is a logical consequence?

a. increased sales
b. missed schedules
c. decreased freight costs
d. low lwvels of obsolescence
b. missed schedules
Cycle counting is an inventory accuracy audit technique that is most effective when performed on _______

a. a yearly basis
b. a daily basis
c. a quarterly basis
d. a weekly basis
b. a daily basis
Which of the following are components of product cost?

a. overhead, labor, and material costs
b. oredering and material costs
c. transportation and labor costs
d. standard costs
a. overhead, labor, and material costs
A closed looped system is a system that:

A. Redirects feedback

B. Prevents errors

C. Monitors accomplishment against the plan

D. Anticipates quality issues
C. Monitors accomplishment against the plan
A closed loop manufacturing planning and control system typically includes what four functions?
S & OP planning
MPS
MRP
Capacity planning
The execution functions include the five manufacturing control functions of:
Input-Output capacity
Detailed scheduling
Dispatching
Anticipated delay reports from both plant & suppliers
Supplier scheduling
Execution Interfaces:

(3 items)
Facilitate production activity control

Supports the systems, plans and methods of communicating and executing activities on the shop floor

Offer feedback and facilitate production activities
The major parts of PAC are:

I. Shop floor maintenance
II. Shop floor scheduling and control
III. Quality circles
IV. Supplier control systems

A. I and III
B. II and III
C. II and IV
D. I and II
C. II and IV
The objectives of the execution systems are to:

A. Communicate detailed shop floor schedules to manufacturing and suppliers

B. Identify bottleneck resources

C. Highlight behind-schedule situations

D. All of the above
D. All of the above
What are the primary connections between PAC and the rest of the MPC system?
The material and capacity plans.
An assembly line would be an example of:

A. Connected flow layout

B. Dis-connected flow layout
A. Connected flow layout
A job-shop would be an example of:

A. Connected flow layout

B. Dis-connected flow layout
B. Dis-connected flow layout
What are the objectives of flow design?
One-piece flow

Lower inventory

Minimized space requirements

Attainment of operational requirements

Flexibility to meet changes in output rates
Inputs necessary for effective scheduling: (11 items)
What to make

When to make it

Where to make it

How to make it

How much to make

Time neede to make it

Due Date

Raw material availability

Machine maintenance and failure schedules

Rework or scrap percentages

Other demands on the facility
Production scheduling: (3 items)
Assists in gaining control over production materials and processes by determining and authorizing production rates and levels

Serves as a performance measure

Utilizes capacity and material plans
Describe Rate-based scheduling: (4 items)
Time coverage instead of re-order points

Demand replacement

Backlog management

Load schedules tied to a uniform production rate
Define Operations Scheduling
The assignment of start of completion dates to activities

The process of setting goals, targets and measures

Considers setup, run, move wait and queue times
What are the six steps for scheduling operations?
Obtain data for product to be produced (BOM, routing, standards, due dates)

Choose backward or forward scheduling

Load facility

Schedule

Release to shop - execue schedule

Provide feedback to initial loa and schedule
What are the four activities required for project scheduling?
Estimate the duration of each activity

Determine the sequence of each activitiy

Calculate the start and finish times for each activity

Identify the critical path
This priority rule provides fair service to all demands for the work center resources. It provides completion of the operation for each order 'as soon as possible." It is especially appropriate for service operations
First Come, First Serve
This priority rule attempts to ensure on-time completion of orders. It works best when routing and processing times for items are similar
Earliest due date
This priority rule usually results in the lowest WIP, the lowest average order completion time and average lateness. Unless this rule is combined with a due date or slack time rule, orders with long processing times can be extremely late
Shortest processing time
This priority rule reduces the average WIP, average order completion time and average order lateness. Unless this rule is combined with aother rule, orders with many operations remaining can be extremely late.
Fewest operations
This priority rule focuses on meeting order due dates
Slack time and Slack Time per operation
Formula for critical ratio:
Due date less the current date then divided by manufacturing lead time remaning.
Formula for Slack Time:
Slack Time = Due date - Current date - Total operation time remaing
What are the elements of lead time?
Queue, Setup, run, wait, move
What are the three functions of lead time?
Determines when orders must be released

Determines WIP investment

Affects customer service
Name three benefits of small lot sizes:
Improved costs

Improved quality

Improved delivery responsiveness
What are the two types of planned maintenance on the shop floor?
Preventive & Predictive
In a job shop enviroment, what authorizes production?
Work Order Release
Releasing work before checking resource availability can:
Aggravate bottleneck operations

Increase queues

Extend lead times
Capacity available is determined by:
Rated capacity, demonstrated capacity or both

Exceptions, such as staffing not at planned levels, equipment down
Name four ways to resolve capacity shortages:
Overtime
Temp help
Re-assignments
Equipment rental
Name four ways to reduce load on a work center:
Use alternate routings
subcontracting
re-schedule releases
Splitting lots
Execution in the push system involves:
Staging/kitting

Dispatching

Work assignment

Expediting/de-expeditng

Activity reporting
What problems are caused by staging?
Lack of inventory visibility

Inaccurate inventory records

Inaccurate BOM records

The need to physically check inventory

The need to expedite orders from discovered shortages
What is required in order to execute activities in a pull system?
Production flow must be synchronized

Visual review systems must be in place

There must be flexibility in operations

Workers must be capable of performing multiple tasks
What are the Famous Seven Wastes?
Waste of overproduction

Waste of waiting

Waste of transportation

Waste of stocks

Waste of motion

Waste of making defects

Waste of processing itself - when product should not be made or the processed used
What is an Afinity Diagram?
A tool whereby employees generate ideas individually on cards or post-it notes and later categorize these ieas under similar headings
Name seven continuous improvement tools
Shewart cycle

Root cuase analysis

Brainstorming

Cause and effect diagram

Pareto chart

Problem solving storyboard

Force field analysis
The cuase and effect diagram is also known as:
A fishbone diagram
What are the five types of causes in a fishbone diagram?
Man
Materials
Measurement
Methods
Machine
A small group of people who normally work as a unit and meet frequently to uncover and solve problems concerning the quality of items produced, process capability or process control.
Quality circles
Name five JIT performance inhibitors:
Purchase price variance

Utilization

Efficiency

Defects per person

Overhead rates
A sporadic problem requires remedy through:

A. Changing the status quo

B. Restoring the status quo
B. Restoring the status quo
A chronic quality problem requires remedy by:

A. Changing the status quo

B. Restoring the status quo
A. Changing the status quo
What is SMED?
Single minute exchange of die
What is the concept of variation?
The concept of variation states that no two items will be perfectly identical.
Describe Special Cause variation
Leads to unpredictable changes

Changes process distribution

Continues to affect output if it is not identified and rectified

Creates an unstable process
Describe Common Cause Variation
Behaves like a stable system of chance causes

Results from numerous uncontrollable everyday factors

Produces predictable output
What is SPC?
Statistical Process Control is the application of statistical methods to the measurement and analysis of variations in a process. It measures process signals to eliminate the need for inspection and reduce the need for acceptance sampling.
SPC is based on what six ideas?
Quality is conformance to specifications

Processes cause products to vary

Variation in processes and products can be measured

Common cause variation produces measurements that follow a predictable pattern

Special cause variation disrupts the predictable pattern

Causes of variation can be isolated and identified.