Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bladder: Detrusor (smooth muscle)
-parasympathetic (causes contraction)
-during filling: inhibited
-during micturition: stimulated
Bladder: Internal Urethral Sphincter
-sympathetic (causes contraction)
-during filling: stimulated
-during micturition: inhibited
Bladder: External Urethral Sphincter
-somatic motor (causes contraction)
-during filling: stimulated
-during micturition: inhibited
Renin-Angiotension system
Liver: secretes angiotensinogen
Kidneys: secrete renin
- renin convertes angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I
- a converting enzyme converts it to Angiotensin II
- the Angiotensin II has a positive feedback and makes the adrenal cortex secretes aldosterone
- aldosterone enters the blood
An abnormal increase
in blood volume “stretches out” the atria, stimulating
secretion of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide).
ANP promotes vasodilation, thus increasing GFR, and inhibits sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, leading to natriuresis (increased levels of sodium in urine), which increases urine volume as it decreases blood volume.
An abnormal decrease
in blood volume and pressure
activates baroreceptor neurons in the aorta and carotid sinuses, leading to increased secretion of vasopressin, also known as anti-diuretic hormone (ADH); which increases water permeability in the collecting ducts, which decreases the volume of excreted urine.
Drinking too much water
causes an abnormal decrease in fluid osmolarity, which alters the activity of
hypothalamic osmoreceptors,
which then reduces activity of ADH neurons, leading to decreased secretion of ADH; water permeability in the collecting ducts is reduced, thus increasing the volume of excreted urine, a condition called diuresis.
Severe loss of body water
decreases GFR and increases levels
of aldosterone, vasopressin, and angiotensin II (not shown);
these adaptive responses act to promote water conservation
in the renal system to help restore blood volume and pressure.
Decreased blood volume
and ingesting too much
both stimulate
aldosterone secretion from
the adrenal cortex;
aldosterone increases
sodium reabsorption at
the “expense” of increased
potassium secretion.
Bicarbonate Handling
-The excretion of a bicarbonate in the urine increases the plasma hydrogen-ion concentration just as if a hydrogen ion had been added to the plasma.
-The addition of a bicarbonate to the plasma lowers the plasma hydrogen-ion concentration just as if a hydrogen ion had been removed from the plasma.
-HCO3- excretion = HCO3- filtered + HCO3- secreted - HCO3- reabsorbed
-For simplicity the bicarbonate secretion is ignored because it is always quantitatively much less than tubular reabsorption.
-Thus bicarbonate excretion is treated as the difference between filtration and reabsorption.
Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
-Osteoblasts build bone.
Osteocytes have long
processes that connect
with each other and to
osteoblasts via tight
-Osteoclasts catalyze bone degradation, when stimulated by
parathormone (PTH).
The four parathyroid glands are located adjacent to the much larger thyroid gland.
-Secretion of
parathormone (PTH)
is a direct response
to an abnormal
decrease in the
concentration of
calcium ions.
-Parathormone’s action to restore normal calcium levels include increased calcium reabsorption in the kidneys, increased calcium-liberating activities of osteoclasts, and increased formation of vitamin D, which increases uptake of dietary calcium in the gastrointestinal tract.
Activated 1,25 (OH)2D3
is a
steroid hormone that causes
cells in the gut to increase
the expression of genes
whose products
take up dietary calcium.