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40 Cards in this Set

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anuria
The complete suppression of urinary secretions by the kidneys.
dribbling
The uncontrollable passage of drops of urine. This is particularly a problem immediately after voiding.
dysuria
Painful or difficult urination
edema
The presence of abnormally large quantities of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body, often due to abnormal renal function.
enuresis
Involuntary discharge of urine after an age at which urinary control should have been achieved. This is usually used specifically to denote bedwetting.
frequency
Frequent micturition. In medical reports, this almost always refers to increased frequency in the number of times that a patient urinates throughout a 24-hour period, and is just called "frequency".
hematuria
Blood in the urine. There are two different types of hematuria: gross and microscopic. Gross hematuria means that it is visible to the naked eye. Microscopic hematuria can only be detected upon laboratory examination.
hesitancy
Difficulty initiating urine flow. This, too, is a word which is applicable in everyday language. However, in medical reports, it is used alone and refers to this functional problem.
incontinence
Inability to control excretory functions (both urination and defecation_. This can occur regularly or be secondary to coughing, sneezing, laughing, or straining.
ischuria
Suppression or retention of urine, either voluntary or involuntary. This can require catheterization for release of urine.
nocturia
Voiding during the night.
oliguria
The excretion of a diminished amount of urine relative to the fluid intake in 24 hours.
pneumaturia
The passage of gas in the urine. THis is rare and generally indicates a fistula between the urinary tract and the bowel.
pollakiuria
Increased frequency of urination, without an increase in total volume.
polyuria
Increase in the total volume of urine excreted in a 24-hour period (usually with concomitany increase in frequency.)
tenesmus
Straining, especially ineffectual and painful straining during passage of stool or urine.
urgency
A compelling need to void. Involuntary urination may occur if voiding is not immediate.
azotemia
An excess of urea or other nitrogenous compounds of the blood.
calculi
The most common type is renal calculi or kidney stones. These are caused by salts in the urine when the urine is alkaline.
cystitis
Inflammation of the urinary bladder. More common in women than men because the urethra is shorter.
diabetes mellitus
An endocrine metabolic disorder resulting from an inadequate utilization of insulin. ONe of the most common early symptoms is excessive urination, and it can be detected by glycosuria-glucose in the urine.
diabetic nephropathy
A disease of the kidneys (nephropathy) which accompanies diabetes mellitus and leads ultimately to renal failure.
exstrophy of the bladder
A congenital deformity resulting from failure of the pelvic structures to fuse so that the bladder opens on the surface of the lower abdomen.
Fanconi syndrome
A failure of the renal tulules to absorb amino acids, glucose, and phosphorus. Osteomalacia and skeletal malformation can result.
floating kidney
A kidney which has become loosely attached to its bed of fat. This usually results when an obese patient loses a lot of weight.
glomerulonephritis
Inflammation of the glomeruli (cluster of nerves of vessels) of the kidneys, ususally in response to an infection. There are both acute and chronic types and it causes deterioration of renal function.
horseshoe kidney
Fusion of the kidneys across the midline, either by renal tissue or a fibrous band.
hydronephrosis
Distention of the pelves and calices of the kidneys due to obstruction of the ureters.
Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease
Also called glomerulosclerosis, occurs when rounded nodular hyaline masses form in the glomeruli of the kidneys. This disease is present in 25% of people with diabetes mellitus.
glomerulosclerosis
Also called Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease, occurs when rounded nodular hyaline masses form in the glomeruli of the kidneys. This disease is present in 25% of people with diabetes mellitus.
metabolic acidosis
A disturbance of the acid-base balance in the body towards the acid side.
nephritis
Inflammation of the kidneys.
nephrosis/nephrotic syndrome
An abnormal condition of the kidney, characterized by marked proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. It occurs in glomerular disease and thrombosis of a renal vein, or it may be a complication of systemic disorders such as diabetes, lupus, or multiple myeloma.
papillary necrosis
Also necrotizing papillitis, this occurs when the renal papillae become infarcted and necrotic and the apicves slough into the renal pelvis.
polycystic kidney disease
A hereditary condition where much of the renal tissue is replaced by clusters of cysts containing either clear or hemorrahagic fluid. Renal function is severely impaired.
pyelonephritis
Inflammation of the kidney and the renal pelves, often involving the ureters as well, due to bacteria.
renal failure
Acute renal faliure is associated with rapidly increasing azotemia and causes the kidneys to lose function. Chronic renal failure can be due to a myriad of pathologies and causes steady deterioration of the kidneys' ability to excrete and regulate normally.
urolithiasis
The formation of calculi in the urinary tract. This can be caused by disease or alteration in the composition of urine.
urinary tract infection (UTI)
The invasion of the urinary tract by microorganisms, which can lead to a number of symptoms including nocturia, tenesmus, dysuria, etc.
Wilms tumor
Wilms tumor, also called nephroblastoma, is a rapidly developing mixed tumor of the kidneys which occurs late in fetal life or early in infancy. Growth is rapidand spreads to the lungs and the brain.