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175 Cards in this Set

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__________motility of pili, extends by addition of subunits of pilin and contacts another cell
twitching motility
_______motility is used by myxobactiera
Gliding motility
The bacterial ________ is a semi rigid structure that gives shape of the cell
cell wall
Cell wall of the gram + bacteria is composed of _______
peptidoglycan
Gram - bacteria contains peptidoglycan but only in ________
thin layers
A__________(fluid filled space) is found btw outer membrane and plasma membrane
periplasm
Outer membrane provides resistance to ________ and action or complement.
Phagocytosis
Materials may penetrate the outer membrane through channels called?
porins
Primary stain, ______, stains both gram - and + purple because it enters the cytoplasm of both
crystal violet
__________ with crystal violet forms large crystals htat cant be washed through the peptidoglycan wall of gram + cells

It makes gram _ cell permeable and washes crystals out, making them colorless
Iodine
________appear gram - because the dont contain peptidoglycans
Archaea
__________ bacteria dont have cell walls. They have sterols in their _____ membrane.

Archaea have ____ in their cell walls
Mycoplasma

plasma

pseudomurein
Bacteria with acid fast cell walls contain concentrations of waxy lipid, _______ acid, that prevents gram staining.
They are stain with _________ dye. (heated)
mycolic acid

carbolfuchsin dye
An enzyme in tears, mucus and saliva? What does it do?
Lysozyme

damages cell walls of gram + bacteria
Bacterium that lost its cell wall and surrounded by only plasma memb. is __________
protoplast
Gram - cells treated with lysozyme retain much outer membrane layers are called ________. Both sensitive to osmotic lysis
spheroplasts
__________encloses the cytoplasm in prokayotes, consists of phospholipids and proteins
plasma membrane
__________plasma membrane contain sterols, making the more rigid
Eukaryotic
Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic have a 2 layered structure, molecules in parallel rows called?
phospholipid bilayer
One end (phosphate) is water _________ and the other (hydrocarbon) isnt
soluble
What is the most important function of the plasma membrane?
selective barrier
_________are folds in plasma memb. that may be a artifact of prep for electron microscopy
meosomes
Movement of molecules or ions from area of higher concentration to lower is?
simple diffusion
_________ is movement of molecules across selectively permeable memb.
osmosis
The term _________ refers to everything inside the plasma memb.
cytoplasm
It also contains many ________, the site of protein synthesis
ribosomes
_________ are not connected to the chromosome and replicate independently
plasmids
________ are inclusions of iron oxide, form by a few gram - bacteria that aid in the microbe orienting itself.
magnetosomes
_________ are highly resistant bodies formed by a few bacterial species, such as Bacillus and Clostridium
Endospores
Archaeas cell walls lack __________

What are the 3 groups?
Dont cause disease in humans
peptidoglycan

methanogens, extreme halophiles, extreme thermophiles
MIcrobes in the domain ________found in the extreme environments are called?
Archaea
Bacteria reproduce by _______ into two daughter cells

Many bacteria move by appendages called ______
binary fission

flagella
Bacteria are enclosed in the cells walls largely made of a carbohydrate and protein complex called _________
peptidoglycan (cellulose)
curved or corkscrew
spiral
spherical or ovoid
coccus
rod like
bacillus
Bacterial cells have one of three shapes: name them
bacillus, coccus, spiral
Baceria and archaea are called __________, which means pre nucleus
prokaryotes
_______ and ________ are simple one celled organisms whose genetic material is not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane
bacteria and archaea
name 7 types of microorganisms
bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, alage, viruses, multicellular animal parasites
What are 3 domains Carl woese created for organisms?
Bacteria, archaea, eukarya
In 1978 _________ devised a system of classification that groups all organisms into 3 domains
carl woese
Genus( genera) is the ________ name and always first
First
Specific epithet (species) is the _______ name and not capitalized
second
Scientific nomenclature assigns each organism 2 names:
genus and specific epithet
the system of naming ________ was established by carolus linnaeus
nomenclature
what do microbes do? name 4
part of food chain in oceans, lakes and rivers, break down wastes, incorporate nitrogen gas from air to organic compounds, photosynthesis, which generates food and oxygen
most _________ or _______ play a vital role in maintaining global environment
microorganisms or microbes
_____________ was the first to report observing microbes with magnifying lenses in 1674.....he made drawings called __________ that have since been identified as bacteria and protozoa
anton van leeuwehoek

animalcules
________ observed with a microscope boxlike openeings in slices of plants. called them _________
Robert Hooke

Cells
Define the cell theory
that all things are composed of cells
What is spontaneous generation
that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter
who demonstrated in 1668 that maggots do not arise spontaneously form decaying meat?
redi
1745, _________ found heated nutrient fluids poured in covered flasks soon had organisms and took this a spontaneous generation.
Needham
_________ showed that needhams microbes had entered the fluid after boiling. He showed heating such fluids in a sealed flask prevented growth
Spallazani
The concept of bio-genesis- that living cells can arise only from other living cells was introduced by __________v
Virchow
who finally ended the debate of spontaneous generation? who devised methods of blocking access of airborne microbes to nutrient enviroments and the basis of aseptic techniques?
Louis Pasteur

Pasteur
Pasteur showed that air acted on _______ to convert them to alcohol, and microbes called _______. Was responsible int he absence of air. Which is called ___________.
Sugars

yeasts

fermentation
Pasteur prevented spoilage by heating the wine/beer just enough to kill bacteria this process is ___________

Possibility that microbes might be able to cause disease
pasteurization

germ theory of disease
The _____ of an organism is its genetic makeup, the info that codes for all the particular characteristics of the organism
genotype
________ refers to actual, expressed properties, such as the organisms ability to perform a particular chemical reaction.
A manifestation of genotype.....its physical characteristics
phenotype
________is the blueprint for a cells proteins and is obtained from a parent cell or from another cell
DNA
Most common type of mutation involving single base pairs is ___________ (or point Mutations) which a single base at one point in the dna sequence is replaced with a different base
base substitution
If the base substitution results in an amino acid substitution in the synthesized protein, this change in the dna is known as a _____________
missense substitution
by creating a nonsense (stop) codon in the middle of an mRNA molecule, some base substitutions prevent the synthesis of a complete functional protein, only a fragment is synthesized. A base substitution resulting in a non sense codon is called_____________
non sense mutation
besides base pair mutations, there are also changes in DNA called __________ in which one or a few nucleotide pairs are deleted or inserted in the DNA
frameshift mutation
________ mutations occur in the absence of any mutation causing agents.
Agents in the enviroment, chemicals, radiation that directly or indirectly bring about mutations are __________
spontaneous

mutagens
What are some types of mutagens?
radiation, chemicals, uv light, chemically or physically
A chemical known to be a mutagen is __________

Nucleoside __________ is also a mutagen
nitrous acid


analog
________ are potent mutagens because their ability to ionize atoms and molecules
xrays and gamma rays
During the process of _______ genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as naked DNA in solution
Transformation
_________ is mediated by one kind of plasmid, a curricular piece of DNA that replicates independently from the cells chromosome. (a mechanism by which genetic material is transferred from one bacterium to another)
conjugation
_________ requires direct cell to cell contact and must be opposite mating type, donor cells must be of opposite mating type, donor cells must carry the plasmid
conjugation
Conjugation is used to map the location of genes on a bacterial ___________
chromosome
The third mechanism of genetic transfer btw bacteria is ________. In this process bacterial dna is transferred from a donor cell to a recipient cell inside a virus that infects bacteria called a ________ or phage
transduction


bacteriophage
______ are self replicating, gene contain circular pieces of dna about 1-5% the size of bacterial chromosome
plasmids
the F factor is a ____________ plasmid that carries genes for sex pili and for the transfer of plasmids to another cell.
conjugative plasmid
__________ plasmids code for enzymes that trigger the catabolism of certain unusual sugars and hyydrocarbons
dissimulation plasmids
_______ Are toxic proteins that kill other bacteria.
______ are plasmids that have medical importance, carry genes that confer upon their host cell resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, cellular toxins
bacteriocins

resistance factors (r factor)
Many r factors contain two groups of genes. One group is called ________ and include genes for plasmid replication and conjugation
resistance transfer factor (rtf)
Another group of r factors is _______, has resistance genes, it codes for the production of enzymes that inactivate certain drugs or toxic substances
R - determinant
__________ are small segments of dna that can move from one region of dna molecule to another( transpose)
transposons
genetic _________ refers to the exchange of genes btw two dna molecules to form new combos of genes on a chromosome
vertical gene transfer
______ gene transfer occurs when genes are passed from a organism to its offspring. Plants and animals pass their genes this way
genetic recombination
Bacteria can pass their genes laterally to other microbes of the same generation, this is known as _____ gene transfer
horizontal
In horizonal gene transfer, the transfer involves a ________ cell that gives a portion of its total dna to a recipient cell
donor
_____ contain a single type of nuclueic acid, either dna or rna
viruses
Viruses contain a ______ coat, that surround the nucleic acid.

multiplies inside living cells by using the synthesizing machinery of the cell
protein
_______ cause the synthesis of special structures that can transfer the viral nucleic acid to other cells

Viruses lack ________ for protein synthesis and atp generation.
viruses

enzymes
The _________ of a virus is the spectrum of host cells the virus can infect.

Viruses that infect bacteria are called _____ or phages
host range

bacteriophages
a ________ is a complete fully developed, infectious viral particle composed of nucleic acids and surrounded by a protein coat that protects it from the environment an is a vehicle of transmission from one host to another
virion
a virus can either dna or rna but never both. The nucleic acid of a ______ can be single stranded dna or double.

The nucleic acid can be linear or _______
virus

circular
The nucleic acid of a virus is protected by a protein coat called_____
capsid
Each capsid is composed of protein subunits called _____
capsomeres
In some viruses the capsid is covered by an ______ which usually consists of some combo of lipids, proteins, and carbs
envelope
Envelopes may be cover by ______ in viruses, which are carb/protein complexes that project from envelopes surface. also help identify it
spikes
The capsid of a ________ virus protests the nucleic acid from nuclease enzymes in biological fluids and promotes the virus attachment to susceptible hosts cells
non enveloped viruses
bacteriophages can multiply by two alternative mechanisms: the ________ cycle or _________ cylce.
lytic cycle

lysogenic cycle
The ________ cycle ends with the lysis and death of the host cell
lytic
The host cell remains alive in the ________ cycle
lysogenic cycle
Organisms obtain energy for cellular work by oxidzing _______ compounds
organic
organisms synthesize complex organic compounds from simple imorganic substances, the major mechanism for such synthesis is a process called _________
photosynthesis
_____ is the conversion of light energy form the sun into chemical energy by plants ans many microbes
photosynthesis
Synthessis of sugars by useing carbon atoms from CO2 gas is also called ______
carbon fixation
________ -__________ and green plants all contribute to the vital recycling with photosynthesis, earth depends on recycling carbon this way
cyanobacteria and algae
Name the two stages of photosynthesis:
1st stage - light dependent reactions (light)

2nd stage - light independent (dark) reactions
Light energy is used to convert adp and to atp

Electrons are used along with energy from atp to reduce co2 to sugar
light dependent reactions (light)q


Dark light dependent reaction
_____________ is one of 3 ways atp is formed, and it occurs only in photosynthetic cells
photophosphorylation
Light energy is absorbed by _______ molecules in the photosynthetic cell exciting some of the molecules electrons,
chlorophyll
__________ photophosphorylation the electrons eventually return to chlorophyll.
cyclic
In ________ photophosphorylation electrons released from chlorophyll do not return to chlororphyll but become incorporated into NDPH
noncyclic
________ use light at their prime energy source

________ depend on oxidation reduction reactions of organic or inorganic compounds for energy
phototrophs


chemotrophs
___________ (self feeders) use carbon dioxide
autotrophs
_________(feeders on others) require an organic carbon source
heterotrophs
What are the requirements of atp production?
1. and energy source(electron donor)
2. transfer of electrons to an electron carrier during an oxidation reduction reaction
3. transfer of electrons to a final electron acceptor
photoautotrophs use light as a source of energy and _________ dioxide as chief source of carbon

They include photsynthetic bacteria such as:
carbon

green and purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae and green plants
microorganisms synthesize ________ an ________

With polysaccharide biosynthesis :
1.________ is formed from adpg
2. ________udpnac is the starting material for biosynthesis of ________
sugars and polysccharides

glycogen

peptiodoglycan
IN LIPID BIOSYNTHESIS:
Lipids are synthesized from________ acids and _________.

_______ is derived from dihydroxyacet one phosphate and fatty acids are built from acetyke coa
fatty

glycerol

glycerol
amino acid and protein biosynthesis:
_________ acids are required for protein biosynthesis.
amino
All amino acids can by synthesized directly or indirectly from carb metabolism particularly from ___________ cycle
krebs
The sugars composing nucleotides are derived from either the __________ phosphate pathway or the enter doudordoff pathway
pentose
_________ and ________ atoms from certain amino acids form the backbones of the purines and pyridmidines
carbon and nitrogen
What are the requirments for microbial growth?
Physical: temp, ph, osmotic pressure

Chemical: sources of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, oxygen, trace elements
mirobes are classified into three primary groups on basis of preferred temps:
psychrophiles

mesophiles

thermophiles
moderate temp loving microbes
mesophiles
cold loving microbes
psychophiles
heat loving microbes
thermophiles
some microbes, members of ________ hace optimum growth temp of 80c and called ________ or ________
Archaea

hyperthermophiles

thermophiles
most bacteria grow best in narrow ph range near neutrality btw _______
6.5 and 7.5
besides water one of the most important req. for microbial growth is ________. Its the structual backbone of living matter.
carbon
protein synthesis requires considerable amts of _____ as well as sulfur
nitrogen
many photosynthetic cyanobacteria uses gaseous nitrogen(n2) directly from atmosphere, this process is called _______
nitrogen fixation
The synthesis of dna an rna also require _______ and phosphorous
Makes up 14% of dry weight of a bacterial cell
nitrogen
________ is used to synthesisze sulfur containing _______ acids an amino acids such as thimanine and biotin
nitrogen

sulfur
________ is essential for synthesis of nucleic acids and phospholipids of cell membranes, and found in energy bonds of atp
phosphorous
Microbes require very small amts of mineral elements such as iron, copper, zinc, etc. these are referred to as _____
trace elements
Microbes that use molecular oxygen are ________, produce more energy from nutirents than microbes that dont use oxygen are ________
aerobes

anaerobes
Organisms that require oxygen to live are _____

Organisms that have developed or retained ability to keep growing in absence of oxygen are ______ give example
obligate aerobes

faculative anaerobes

escherichia coli
The major function of the cell wall is to :
prevent bacterial cells from rupturing when water pressure inside the cell is greater than outside the cell
peptidoglycan is also known as _______
murein
_________ interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis
pcn
______ are proteins that permit small molecules to pass through outer membrane
porins
________ is a bacteria that lacks cell walls
mycoplasma
______ have pseudomurein and lack peptidoglycan
archaea
plasma membrane encloses the _______ and is a lipid bilayer with peripheral and intergal proteins (fluid mosaic model)
cytoplasm
Plasma membrane can be destroyed by ________ and ______
alcohols and polymyxins
cytoplasm of a prokaryote contains numerous _________ ribosomes, ribosomes consist of rRNA and protein

Protein _________ occurs at ribosomes and inhibited by certain antibiotics
70s

synthesis
reserve deposits found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
inclusions
_______ are resting structures formed y some bacteria, they allow survival during adverse enviro conditions
endospores
the process of endospore formation is called ___________, The return of an endospore to vegetative state is _________
sporulation

germination
________ stanley showed the organism called tobacco mosaic virus was so simple and homogeneous it could be _______
wendell

crystallized
__________ proposed an immunologically based classification sys, for streptococci bacteria, classifying them as serotypes (variants within species)
Rebecca lancefeild
Who discovered the 1st antibiotic and what was it?
alexander flemming

penicillium nonatum (p. chrysogenum)
Paul ______ speculated about a magic bullet that would do what
ehrlich

would destroy a pathogen without harming infected host
prokaryotic cells lack membrane enclosed organelles. But all bacteria contain: (4)
cytoplasm, ribosomes, plasma membrane, nucleoid
substances produced naturally by bacteria and fungi are __________
antibiotics
1835 Agostino _________ made the 1st association btw microbes and disease by proving that a fungus was the cause of silkworm disease
bassi
________ found out that another silkworm disease was caused by a protazoa
pasteur
_________ lister applied germ theory to medicine. He used carbolic acid or ____ on surgical dressing wounds.
Joseph

Phenol
Ignaz _________ demonstrated that chemically disinfecting hands of drs minimized infections of OB patients
semmelweis
1876 robert ______ found certain bacteria in the blood of cattle that had died of anthrax were the cause of death.
koch
Name steps in Kochs postulates
bacteria could be isolated and grown in pure culture, injected into healthy animals, cause death and same bacteria then could be isolated from the dead animal (proved specific microbe is cause of specific disease)
1798, _________ showed the mild disease cowpox gave immunity to ______
jenner

small pox
Jenner inoculated by scratching peoples arm with cowpox infected needle and this process became known as ________
vaccination
Treatment of disease by chemical substances
chemotherapy
multicellular animal parasites such as flatworms and roundworms are called _______ and are not strictly microbes
`helminths
_______ are very small and not cellular, they have a core of ____ or ________ surrounded by a protein coat
viruses

dna or rna
viruses only reproduce inside the cells of a ________ organism
host
_____are photosynthetic eukaryotes mostly of kingdom protista and are unicellular
algae
Alage need light for gowth and produce oxygen and carbohydrates by ______
photosynthesis
Protozoa are classified by locomotion whic are :
pseudopods (false feet)

cilia

flagella
molds form ________ of long filament or hyphae
mycelia
_____ are unicellular, eukaryotic microbes, members of the kingdom _________ and classified by means of locomotion
Protozoa

prtista
What is fungi cells walls composed of?

_________ are unicellular non filamentous fungi larger than bacteria
Chitin

yeasts
Fungi are ________

Contain dna with distinct nucleus surrounded by a _________ THey are _____ or _______
eukaryotes

nuclear membrane

unicellular

multicellular