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7 Cards in this Set

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1. What contracts with the most force to propel blood through the systemic circulation?
2. Describe the vagus.
3. If velocity is greater where the area is smaller, which has the greatest velocity - arteries or capillaries?
1. left ventricle
2. is parasympathetic, innervating the heart and the digestive system. the vagus nerve slows the rate of heart contractions and increase digestive activity in the intestines.
3. Arteries (arteries are bigger than capillaries, but there are more capillaries that arteries)
1. If there is a problem in microtubule production, it would effect?

2. What is the function of the respiratory system as a whole and the respiratory tract?

3. What is another word for an RBC?
1. Breathing, fertility, and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid

2. The respiratory system delivers oxygen and expels CO2. The respiratory tract moistens, warms, and filters the incoming air

3. Erythrocyte - delivers O2 and removes CO2
Explain hemoglobin and cooperativity
Hemoglobin is found within erythrocytes. Within Hb there is a heme group with 4 iron atoms. Each iron atom can hold 1 oxygen molecule. When one oxygen molecules binds, others bind more easily - this is cooperativity.
Explain the oxygen dissociation curve and how CO2, CO, pH, 2,3-DPG, and temp effect it
It is a sigmoidal curve. Hb saturation is on the y axis and O2 mmHg is on the x axis. As CO2, [H+] (Bohr shift), and temp are increased the curve shifts to the right. As CO is increased, it displacing O2 and the entire saturation point limit is extremely lowered...it also shifts left.
When 2,3-DPG is added, it shifts the curve to the right nice it increases the release rate of O2 from Hb
1. What is the basic equation for CO2 and H+
2. Albumin
3. Immunoglobulin
4. Fibrinogen
5. Leukocyte
1. CO2 + H2O ---> H2CO3 ---> HCO3- + H+
2. Transport fatty acids and steroids and act to regulate osmotic pressure of the blood
3. antibodies
4. Clotting factor
5. WBC
Discuss the longevity of granulocytes vs agranulocytes and the reason.
Granulocytes live a very short time b/c they work no specifically against any agent and die once the infection is gone. Whereas a granulocytes live a long time b/c they work against specific agents of infection and stick around in case it comes back
B lymphocytes differentiate and mature in the...?
Bone marrow and liver. Each B lymphocyte is capable of making a single type of antibody that it displays on its membrane