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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
are microorganisms capable of causing disease in animals
refers to the presense of pathogens in or on an inanimate object or an animal
refers to the invasion and growth of a pathogen in or on a host animal (The pathogen must overcome the host animals resistance in order for infection to occur.
The Golden Period
Approx. 8-12 hrs. Is the period between contaimination and infection. This is our oly chance to eliminate pathogens before they gain entry to an animal's body and potentially cause disease
is the term used to the presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxic products in the blood or tissue of our patients. Both animals and objects can be referred to as "septic" This term is also often applied to the widespread dissemination of bacteria or their toxins throughout the body (i.e. an overwhelming infection).
refers to the complete absence of all forms of pathogenic organisms
Aseptic Technique
refers to a group of routine procedures, methods and techniques that are designed to maintain an object, area or surface as free of pathogenic microorganisms as possible and thereby prevent transmission, contamination, and subsequently infection and disease in our patients.
infection refers to an infection caused by the health care worker.
infection refers to an infection acquired while in the hospital. Often hospital pathogens are more resistant to disinfectant and antibiotics and can be very difficult to treat. Poor aseptic technique cannot only result in contamination but can actually create resistant microorganisms.
means the complete absence of all forms of microbes
should be taken to mean may or may not be contaminated but certainly is not free of microbes.
means only cleaning or to clean. Reduce the number of microorganisms to a "safe level" but does not elimate them. The main purpose of sanitizing is to reduce the number of microbes and eliminate organic debris such as dirt, oil, blood, feces, or other secretions.
Point one
the fewer organisms present and the less extranious organic matter present, the lower the concentration of chemicals and the shorter the time needed to achieve decontamination.
point two
thoroughly cleaning objects before attemptin to disinfect or sterilize them is a practical application of this principle. clearing objects of tissue debris and blood is also important beccause such organic matter limites access and impairs the effectiveness of many chemical agents.
point three
examples of sanitization are washing surgery landry and instruments, washing your hands, scrubbing runs and food bowls, wiping down table tops and mopping floors
Soaps & detergents are
surfactants, which are substances that are soluble in water but are able to dissolve lipids.
soaps and detergents ...
sanitize by emulsifying dirt, oil, and organic debris so that they can be rinsed away. they can be cationic (positively charged) or anionic (negatively charged) and must be chosen to work efficiently with either hard or soft water.
soaps and detergents ...
reduce the number of micoorganisms but do not eliminate them. they remove organic debris
reduce or eliminate ordor; do not sanitize, disinfect or sterilize
Vague terms used more commonly in household prodcuts. generally implies activity against a variety of microorganisms.
disrupt the life cycle or metabolic processes of bacteria inside the living body
as in bacteriocidal, virucidal, sporocidal means to kill bacteria, viruses or spores.
as in bacteriostatic, virustatci, sporostatic means to slow the growth of bacteria, viruses or spores
The objective of decontamination is to render contaminated material "safe for further handling" the method required depends on the intended use of the material (i.e. sanitizing is OK for your clothes but not sufficient for surgery laundry) Disinfection, Antisepsis, and Sterilization are all forms of decontamination
A physical process or a chemical substance that reduces the numbers and inhibits the growth of microorganisms on inanimate objects (surfacts, medical equipment, and other manmade objects (i.e. instruments, table tops, floors)
what do disinfectants do
they do not eliminate organisms or kill resistant bacterial spores. Some examples are Ozone, alcohols, hydrogen peroxide, bleach, parvosol, HDQ, Roccal-Plus
a physical process or a chemical substance that reduces the numbers and inhibits the growth of microorganisms on living tissue including the external surfaces of the body (skin and mucous membranes)
what do antiseptics do
they do not eliminate organisms or kill resistant bacterial spores. Some examples are
povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine solutions.
betadyne, neosporin or triple antibiotic ointments.
what else to antiseptics do
most modern household disinfectants contain bitrex, an exceptionally bitter substance designed to discourage ingestion, as an added safety measure. those that are used in people's homes should never be mixed with other cleaning products as chemical reations can occur. they are frequently used in labs, hospitals, kitchens, and bathrooms to killinfectious organisms.
what is skin
intact skin is not tissue. however, skin is considered a living tissue for the purposes of this discussion.
concepts for thinking about disinfections and antisepsis as activites or clinical uses
applied to man-made mterials: using as a disinfectant.
concepts disinfectants and antisepsis
applied full strength on intact skin: using as an antiseptic (disinfectant?)
concepts disinfectant and antisepsis
used diluted on living tissue or in a body cavity: using as an antiseptic
concepts disinfectant and antisepsis
applied as an ointment to broken skin (cut, abrasion) using as an antiseptic
Eliminate (100%) microorganisms and their resistant spores from inanimate objects. the removal of any biological material is critical. biological matter or any grime may shield organisms from the property intended to kill them, whether it physical or chemical. cleaning can also remove a large number of organisms at once
can living tissue be sterilized
Appropriate use and proper selection of agents
points to remember
the characteristics of the individual product and its intended use
spectrum of activity
effectiveness against the various types and forms of pathogenic organisms
potential for irritaiton or toxicity
some products are intended for use on living tissue, some only on inanimate objects and others can be used on both.
applied concentrated or diluted
some products are applied full strength, others must be diluted first.
what is the proper dilution
Can the product be used full strength on living tissue
Inactiviated by soaps and detergents
some products are completely inactiviated when they come into contact with soap or detergent when using a product with this characteristic, thorough rinsing must precide its application or the product will be totally ineffective
the product may also be effected by hard or soft water
Inactivated by organic matter
some products are completely inactivated when they come ino contact with organic matter like dirt, blood, feces or other body fluids and secretions. When using a product with this characteristic, thorough clensing (sanitization) must precide it's application or the product will have reduced effectiveness or may even be totally ineffective. All products are inhibited to some degree by organic matter
Compatibility with other products
sometimes two products used together enhance the total e3ffectiveness. Other times, two prodcuts used together can diminish the total effectiveness. when products enhance each other this is referred to as potentiation.
rinse thoroughly
dilute properly
apply correctly