Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What can be found in the nucleus of an atom?
neutrons and protons
What is endocytosis?
Taking substances into a cell by surrounding it with the cell membrane
What is exocytosis?
Means by which materials are released from the cell
What are organic compounds?
Compounds containing carbon and hydrogen
What are carbohydrates?
Organic molecules which supply energy. Examples are sugars and starches
Which carbohydrate is made by plants during photosynthesis?
sugar (glucose)
What is a producer?
Organisms that make their own food. Plants are producers
In which organelle does photosynthesis take place?
Which gas do plants give off as they photosynthesize?
What two types of gas do people breathe out due to respiration?
Carbon dioxide and water vapor
What is a consumer?
Organisms that cannot produce food. Humans and animals are consumers.
What structures inside the nucleus contain hereditary information?
What is a chromatid?
duplicated chromosomes during mitosis. They have two identical DNA strands
What is a centromere?
chromotids are held together at a section called the centromere
What is mitosis?
Mitosis is a process by which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei.
What happens to the cell during interphase?
Interphase is a period of growth and development. Cells spend most of their time in this phase.
What happens to the cell during prophase?
The nuclear membrane breaks down; spindles form.
What happens to the cell during metaphase?
Chromotids line up across the center of the cell
What happens to the cell during anaphase?
Each centromere divides, chromotids separate and move to the opposite ends of the cell.
What happens to the cell during telophase?
A new nucleus forms during telophase
What happens to the cell during cytokinesis?
The cell pinches in the middle and forms two new cells
How many chromosomes are in each new cell after mitosis?
The cell has the same number of chromosomes that it had before mitosis.
What is meiosis?
Meiosis is the process that produces haploid sex cells.
How many chromosomes do sperm and egg cells have?
Humans have 23 chromosomes. Sperm and egg cells have half the number of chromosomes that other cells of the organism have.
Why do sperm and egg cells have this many chromosomes?
Haploid cells combine to form the 23 pairs of chromosomes typical of humans. The fertilized egg cell receives half its chromosomes from the mother and half from the father.
What does DNA code for the production of?
DNA codes for a cell's growth and function.
What is DNA replication?
Replication is the copying of a cell's DNA
Why must DNA replicate?
Every cell must contain an exact copy of the organism's DNA
Wha this DNA made of?
Deoxyribose, phosphate group, nitrogen group
Cytosine is a base on DNA that only binds to ___________.
Guanine C binds to G
Adenine is a base on DNA that only binds to _________.
Thymine A binds to T
What is a mutation?
A mistake that happens when DNA is copied.
What is an allele?
An allele is the different forms of a trait that a gene may have.
What is the study of how traits are inherited?
What is a recessive allele?
Form of an allele that will be covered up or seem to disappear when combined with a dominant (stronger) allele.
What is the purpose of using a punnett square?
Use a punnett square to predict the odds of the result of the joining of two alleles.
If a trait is homozygous, what does that mean?
Alleles are the same--either both dominant or both recessive
What is a phenotype?
The observable result of an organism's genotype
What is a genotype?
Genetic makeup of an organism; it can't be seen.
What is polygenic inheritance?
Polygenic inheritance occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together to produce a trait.
Which disorder is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21?
Down's syndrome
What are the two sex chromosomes in males?
X and Y
What is a pedigree?
A visual tool for tracing a trait through a family.
The gene Ee could best be described as what?
Define Hypothesis.
A prediction that can be tested.
What is a control group?
A control is the standard to which the outcome of a test is compared. The control group remains the same throughout an experiment.
What are the steps to the scientific method?
State the problem.
Gather information.
Form a hypothesis.
Perform an experiment.
Analyze data.
Draw conclusions.
Report results.
What is a variable?
In an experiment, the one thing that can change.
What is the basic unit of length?
What is the basic unit of mass?
What is the basic unit of temperature?
How many centimeters are in a meter?
How many milliliters are in a liter?
What is the freezing and boiling points of water.
Freezing point - 0 degrees Celcius
Boiling point - 100 degrees Celcius
What does a balancing scale measure?
What is spontaneous generation?
A theory that states that living things can come from nonliving things.
What is our primary source of energy?
The sun.
What is taxonomy?
The classification of animals and plants.
What did Carolus Linnaeus contribute to science?
A system for grouping or classifying organisms called binomial nomenclature.
Using Linnaeus's system, each creature is identified by two names. The ____________ and ____________.
The genus and species.
What is binomial nomenclature?
The two word naming system for organisms.
All living things are classified into seven major groups. The largest and most general group is ____________.
What is the most basic unit of structure and function of living things?
The cell.
What is an organelle?
The structure in the cytoplasm of a cell that can act as a storage site, process energy, move materials, or manufacture substances.
What is a cell wall?
The rigid structure that encloses, supports, and protects the cells of plants.
What is a nucleus?
The organelle that controls all activities of a cell and contains hereditary material.
What is another name for thick strands of DNA that do not leave the nucleus?
What are ribosomes?
Small structures on which cells make their own protein.
What is an endoplasmic reticulum?
The passageways that move materials around in a cell.
What makes a rough endoplasmic reticulum rough?
Rough ER has ribosomes attached to it.
What does "Mikey the Mighty Mitochondria" produce?
What is a vacuole?
Vacuoles are membrane-bound spaces in cells that are used for the temporary storage of materials.
What are lysosomes?
Organelles that contain digestive chemicals that break down food, waste, and worn-out cell parts.
Which plant organelle contains chlorophyll?
What is cytoplasm?
The gel-like substance found in cells.
The endoplasmic reticulum comes in two types. What are they?
Smooth and rough
In which organelle can chromosomes be found?
The Nucleus
Which two structures are only found in plant cells?
Cell wall and chloroplast
Groups of cells combine to form what?
Groups of tissue combine to form what?
Groups of organs combine to form what?
Organ Systems
Groups of organ systems combine to form what?