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443 Cards in this Set

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The study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires
Consumer Behavior
Three steps in consumer behavior
Identify need
Make purchase
Dispose of product
Possible actors in consumer behavior
Purchaser
User
Influencer
Organization/Group
Does consumer behavior always occur after buying?
No(influencers)
Methods of market segmentation
demographics
lifestyle
geography
usage
psychographics
psychological, sociological, and anthropological (cultural) factors
Psychographics
Building bonds with consumers
Relationship Marketing
Tracking buying habits and then crafting products and messages that are tailored to wants and needs
Database Marketing
Music, movies, sports, books, celebrities, and other forms of entertainment consumed by the mass market
Popular Culture
Why do we buy products?
For what they mean
Relationships with them
Relationship with a product that helps establish the user's identity
Self-Concept Attachment
Relationship with a product that links you with your past self
Nostalgic Attachment
Relationship with a product because it is part of your daily routine
Interdependence
Relationship with a product that elicits emotional bonds of warmth, passion, or other strong emotions
Love
By 2015, how many cities will have a population of 10 million or more?
26
The study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires
Consumer Behavior
Three steps in consumer behavior
Identify need
Make purchase
Dispose of product
Possible actors in consumer behavior
Purchaser
User
Influencer
Organization/Group
Does consumer behavior always occur after buying?
No(influencers)
Methods of market segmentation
demographics
lifestyle
geography
usage
psychographics
psychological, sociological, and anthropological (cultural) factors
Psychographics
Building bonds with consumers
Relationship Marketing
Tracking buying habits and then crafting products and messages that are tailored to wants and needs
Database Marketing
Music, movies, sports, books, celebrities, and other forms of entertainment consumed by the mass market
Popular Culture
Why do we buy products?
For what they mean
Relationships with them
Relationship with a product that helps establish the user's identity
Self-Concept Attachment
Relationship with a product that links you with your past self
Nostalgic Attachment
Relationship with a product because it is part of your daily routine
Interdependence
Relationship with a product that elicits emotional bonds of warmth, passion, or other strong emotions
Love
By 2015, how many cities will have a population of 10 million or more?
26
Because of the digital revolution, what percentage of retail sales are online?
7%
Consumption in which networks become a part of us
U-Commerce
Wearable computers and ads beamed to cell phones are examples of what revolution?
U-Commerce
Example of consumer to consumer activity
ebay
rules of conduct that guide actions
Business ethics
Standards against which most people in the culture judge what is right and what is wrong, good or bad
Business ethics
A biological motive
Need
One way a need can be satisfied
Want
Advertising is necessary according to what perspective?
Economics of Information
A source of consumer information that helps us make smart decisions
Advertising
Can advertisers manipulate people?
No
Disrupting efforts by the corporate world to dominate our cultural landscape
Culture Jamming
Stated that we need safe products and more information for consumers, along with policies that don't restrict choice
Declaration of Consumer Rights by John F Kennedy, 1962
When a firm protects or enhances the natural environment as it goes about its activities
Green Marketing
Examples of Green Marketing
Reducing wasteful packaging
Donations to charity
Because of the digital revolution, what percentage of retail sales are online?
7%
Consumption in which networks become a part of us
U-Commerce
Wearable computers and ads beamed to cell phones are examples of what revolution?
U-Commerce
Example of consumer to consumer activity
ebay
rules of conduct that guide actions
Business ethics
Standards against which most people in the culture judge what is right and what is wrong, good or bad
Business ethics
A biological motive
Need
One way a need can be satisfied
Want
Advertising is necessary according to what perspective?
Economics of Information
A source of consumer information that helps us make smart decisions
Advertising
Can advertisers manipulate people?
No
Disrupting efforts by the corporate world to dominate our cultural landscape
Culture Jamming
Stated that we need safe products and more information for consumers, along with policies that don't restrict choice
Declaration of Consumer Rights by John F Kennedy, 1962
When a firm protects or enhances the natural environment as it goes about its activities
Green Marketing
Examples of Green Marketing
Reducing wasteful packaging
Donations to charity
Encouraging positive activities and discouraging negative activities through ads
Social Marketing
The susceptibility of the nation's food supply to bioterrorism is an example of this
Consumer Terrorism
The physiological or psychological dependency on products or services
Consumer Addiction
Examples of Consumer Addiction
Alcohol, chocolate, gambling
Repeitive shopping as an antidote to tension, anxiety, depression, or boredom
Compulsive Consumption
Can you market to compulsive consumption?
Yes.
When people are used or exploited, willingly or not, for commercial gain in the marketplace
Consumed consumers
Examples of Consumed consumers
Prostitutes, egg donation
Shoplifting and employee theft
Shrinkage
When products and services are deliberately defaced or mutilated
Anticonsumption
Examples of anticonsumption
Spray-painting billboards, PETA
The response of sensory receptors to basic stimuli
Sensation
Sensory Receptors
Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers
The process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted
Perception
Reality is what?
What you perceive it to be
Order of the Perception Process
Sensory Stimuli, Sensory Receptors, Exposure, Attention, Interpretation
Colors are what?
Emotive and memorable
True or False: We remember a product's logo rather than the color associated with it
False. We sometimes remember color rather than logo.
What does the color blue represent?
Fiscally conservative, relaxed, positive outlook
What does red represent?
Excitement
What does pink represent?
Femininity
What does black represent?
Agressiveness
When companies have exclusive rights to a particular color
Trade Dress
Example of trade dress
John Deere Green
Scented marketing is a new trend, costing how much per year?
90 million
What is the main drawback of scented marketing?
Cost (not for staple items)
Using sounds to create a picture
Theatre of the Mind
Translating feelings into design elements
Kansai Engineering
Example of Kansai Engineering
Stick shift at 9.5 cm conveys sportiness and control
Develop concoctions to please the changing palates of consumers
Flavor house
When a stimulus comes within the range of someone's sensory receptors
Exposure
Sensory Thresholds
Absolute Threshold
Differential Threshold
Just Noticable Difference
The minimum amount of stimulation detected on a sensory channel
Absolute Threshold
An example of this would be the level of sound that can be heard outside of a store, but isn't too loud inside
Absolute Threshold
The ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two stimuli
Differential Threshold
An example of this would be that the "may contain" labels are there because the use of ingredients depends on demand
Differential Threshold
The minimum difference that can be detected between two stimuli
Just Noticeable Difference
Making sure the absolute threshold can be detected
Just Noticeable Difference
The amount of change necessary to be noticed is systematically related to the intensity of the original stimulus-The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater a change must be for it to be noticed
Weber's Law
When the stimulus is below the level of awareness
Subliminal Perception
Tiny figures that are inserted into a magazine
Embeds
Is there evidence that subliminal perception works?
There is little evidence that it can bring about behavioral changes
The extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus
Attention
When people attend to only a small portion of the stimuli to which they are exposed
Perceptual selection
The degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time
Adaptation
Factors that lead to adaptation
Intensity
Duration
Discrimination
Exposure
Relevance
Stimulus selection factors
Size
Color
Position
Novelty
When stimuli appear in unexpected ways or places, what is being used?
Novelty
The meaning that we assign sensory stimuli
Interpretation
A set of beliefs to which the stimulus is assigned
Schema
Process by which certain properties of a stimulus typically will evoke a schema, which leads consumers to evaluate the stimulus in terms of other stimuli they have encountered and believe to be similar.
Priming
Says that people tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete
Closure Principle
Says that consumers group objects that share the same characteristics
Principle of Similarity
Says that one part of the stimulus will dominate and other parts will recede into the background
Figure-Ground Principle
The correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning
Semiotics
According to semiotics, a message has what three components?
Object
Sign
Interpretant
The product that focuses the message
Object
The sensory imagery that represents the intended meanings of the object
Sign
The meaning derived from a message
Interpretant
According to semiotics, signs are related to objects in what three ways?
Icon
Index
Symbol
Semiotic sign that resembles the product in some way (A Diamond is Forever ad)
Icon
Semiotic sign that is connected to some object because they share some property
Index
Semiotic sign that is related to a product through conventional or agreed upon associations (Tony the Tiger)
Symbol
Using elements of the marketing mix to influence the consumer's interpretation of its meaning
Perceptual positioning strategy
Dimensions establishing a brand's position
Lifestyle
Price leadership
Attributes
Product Class
Competitors
Occasions
Users
Quality
A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience
Learning
Casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge
Incidental learning
Example of learning by simple association
Logo recognition
Example of learning by complex cognitive activity
Writing an essay
Stimulus naturally capable of causing a response
Unconditioned Stimulus
Stimulus that does not initially cause a response
Conditioned Stimulus
Through learned association and repitition, the conditioned stimulus will cause this
Conditioned response
Stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus will evoke a similar, conditioned response
Stimulus generalization
Example of stimulus generalization in which you hide a product's true origin
Masked branding
When the unconditioned stimulus does not follow a stimulus similar to a conditioned stimulus
Stimulus discrimination
Examples of masked branding
Coors and Blue Moon
Miller and Plank Road Brewery
General Motors and Saturn
When a brand has strong positive associations in a consumer's memory and commands loyalty
Brand Equity
Brand with the best example of brand equity
Coke
Applications of Stimulus Generalization
Family Branding
Product Line Extensions
Licensing
Look-alike Packaging
What is look-alike packaging more formally known as?
Generic Product
When other companies buy the right to manufacture products with particular name or logo
Licensing
Applications of Stimulus Discrimination
Consumers differentiate a brand from competitors

Unique attributes of the brand
Instrumental Conditioning is also called what?
Operant Conditioning
When conditioning occurs after the action
Instrumental or operant conditioning
Example of Instrumental or Operant Conditioning
Commenting on new hairstyle
Behavior learned as intermediate actions are rewarded
Shaping
Instrumental Conditioning occurs in one of three ways, which are:
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Punishment
When a positive outcome is no longer received, the learned stimulus-response connection will not be maintained
Extinction
Reinforcement Schedules
Fixed Interval
Variable Interval
Fixed Ratio
Variable Ratio
Example of Fixed Interval Reinforcement Schedule
After every 5th sub, you get one free
Example of Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedule
Gambling and the 97% payout
Observational Learning is part of what theory?
Cognitive Learning Theory
Watching the actions of others and noting the reinforcements they receive for their behaviors
Observational learning
With observational learning, learning is a result of what type of experience?
Vicarious, not direct
The Memory Process
External Inputs -> Encoding -> Storage -> Retrieval
Stage in memory process in which the information is placed in the memory
Encoding
Stage in memory process in which the information is retained in the memory
Storage
Stage in memory process in which the information that is stored in the memory is found as needed
Retrieval
Very temporary storage of information
Sensory Memory
The working memory
Short term memory
Memory with a limited period of time and a limited capacity
Short term memory
Memory in which you retain information for a long period of time
Long term memory
Relating a stimulus to information that is already in the memory
Elaboration rehearsal
Assumes that Short and Long term memory are seperate systems
Multiple Store Models of memory
States that different levels of processing occur depending on the nature of the processing task- the more effort it takes to process the information, the more likely it will be placed in long term memory
Activation Models of memory
Factors Influencing retrieval
Physiological
Situational
Viewing Environment
Postexperience advertising
effects
Example of a physiological factor that influences retrieval of information
A fever
The first brand to enter the market
Pioneering brand
Examples of situational factors that influence retrieval of information
Pioneering brand or descriptive brand names being easier to recall
Information retrieval factor illustrated by the fact that commercials that are shown first in a series of ads are recalled better than those shown last
Viewing environment
When consumers confuse recently viewed ads with their own experiences
Postexperience advertising effects
States that consumers are better able to access information if their mood is the same at the time of their recall as when the information was learned
State-Dependent Retrieval
State-Dependant Retrieval is also called what?
Mood Congruence Effect
The prominence or level of activation of stimuli in the memory
Salience
States that any technique that increases the novelty of a stimulus also improves recall
Von Restorff Effect
Example of Von Restorff Effect
Munz jumping while giving relevant test information will cause students to better remember it
When the structural changes in the brain produced by learning simply go away
Decay
You forget stimulus-response associations when new responses responses to the same or similar stimuli are learned
Retroactive Interference
When old information gets in the way- "You can't teach an old dog new tricks"
Retroactive Interference
As new responses are learned, a stimulus loses its effectiveness in retrieving the old response
Proactive Interference
When we learn something new, we forget the old
Proactive Interference
When only a portion of the items in a category are presented to consumers, the omitted items are not as easily recalled
Part-list cueing effect
Memories related to your own past
Autobiographical memories
Possessions that serve as a form of external memory prompt the retrieval of episodic memories
Mnemonic qualities
When a stimulus evokes a response years after it is initially perceived
Spontaneous Recovery
There is evidence for the superiority of ___ memory over ___ memory
visual over verbal
Pictorial ads may enhance ___, but don't necessarily improve ___.
Recall, not comprehension
When a need arises that a consumer wishes to satisfy
Motivation
Functional or Practical Benefit
Utilitarian Need
Experiential-emotional responses or fantasies
Hedonic Need
Example of Hedonic Need
Mountain Dew
The consumer's desired end state
Goal
The degree of arousal
Drive
Example of drive
Hungry vs. Starving
A need created by personal and cultural factors
Want
Motivation can be described in terms of:
Strength
Direction
The pull that motivation exerts
Strength
The way the consumer attempts to reduce motivational tension
Direction
The drive theory discusses what two terms?
Tension
Homeostasis
Created by unfulfilled consumption needs
Tension
A balanced state of arousal
Homeostasis
Says that behavior is pulled by the expectations of desirable outcomes or positive incentives
Expectancy Theory
The form of consumption to satisfy a need
Want
Needs that maintain life
Biogenic
Culture related needs
Psychogenic (Maslow)
Needs that emphasize the objective, tangible aspects of products
Utilitarian
Example of Utilitarian needs
Clothes
Subjective and Experiential needs
Hedonic
Example of a hedonic need
Gucci clothes
Conflict in which you choose between two desirable alternatives
Approach-Approach
Tension when beliefs or behaviors conflict with one another
Cognitive Dissonance
Motivation to reduce tension between beliefs or behaviors
Cognitive Dissonance Reduction
Justifying your decisions
Cognitive Dissonance Reduction
Conflict in which you desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time
Approach-Avoidance
Cognitive Dissonance is what type of conflict?
Approach-Approach
Eating pasta on the nutrisystem nourish diet while avoiding fat and weight gain is an example of what type of conflict?
Approach-Avoidance
Conflict in which one must make a choice between two undesirable alternatives
Avoidance-Avoidance
Driving vs Flying when they are both expensive alternatives is an example of what type of conflict?
Avoidance-Avoidance
Need for personal accomplishment
Need for achievement
Need for the company of others
Need for affiliation
Need to control one's environment
Need for power
Need for individual identity
Need for uniqueness
The biogenic and psychogenic needs that specify certain levels of motives
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Hierarchy
Self Actualization
Ego Needs
Belongingness
Safety
Physiological
Maslow: "Quaker Oat Bran-Its the right thing to do"
Physiological Needs
Maslow: "Allstate Insurance-You're in good hands with Allstate"
Safety Needs
Maslow: "Pepsi- You're in the Pepsi Generation"
Belongingness
Maslow: "Royal Salute Scotch- What the rich give the wealthy"
Ego Needs
Maslow: "US Army- Be All that you can be"
Self Actualization
Perceived relevance of the object based on needs, values, and interests
Involvement
Information processing depend on what?
Level of involvement
When the basic message features are considered
Simple Processing
When information is linked to preexisting knowledge
Elaboration
Involvement as a continuum
Disinterest to obsession
Low involvement Consumption
Inertia
Involvement level in which you lack the motivation to consider alternatives
Inertia
High Involvement Consumption
Flow State
When one is involved with the product, ad, or web site
Flow State
When one is highly involved in the product or has fierce customer loyalty
Cult Products
Level of interest in a particular product
Product involvement
Interest in processing marketing communications
Message-Response Involvement or advertising involvement
The differences that may occur when buying the same product for different contexts
Purchase Situation Involvement
A voluntary gift with low self interest
Altruism (flowers to a sick friend)
A voluntary gift with low self interest
Reciprocary Creation (diamond earrings to romantic partner)
An obligatory gift with low self interest
Ritual Obligation (friend's daughter's graduation)
Obligatory gift with high self interest
Love, Friendship (Anniversary present for spouse)
Strategies to increase involvement
Appeal to hedonic needs
Use novel stimuli
Use prominent stimuli
Celebs
Build a bond
Example of appealing to hedonic needs
using sensory appeals
Example of using novel stimuli
Unusual cinematography
Sudden Silence
Example of using prominent stimuli
Larger ads
More color
A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite
Value
General set of values that uniquely define a culture
Core Values
Ranking of relative importance of univeral values
Value system
Learning the value systems of one's own culture
Enculturation
Learning the value system of another culture
Acculturation
What are cultural beliefs taught by?
Socialization Agents
Security or Happiness are examples of what type of values?
Cultural
Convenient Shopping and prompt service are examples of what type of values?
Consumption-Specific
Ease of use and durability are examples of what type of values?
Product-Specific
The Rokeach Value Survey measures what two types of values?
Terminal
Instrumental
Desired End States
Terminal Values
Actions Needed to achieve terminal values
Instrumental Values
The importance attached to worldly possessions
Materialism
Materialism emphasizes the well-being of:
Individual vs the Group
People with highly material values tend to be:
Less Happy
Beliefs a person holds about his or her attributes and how he or she evaluates those qualities
Self Concept
Dimensions of the attributes of self-concept
Content
Positivity
Intensity
Stability
Accuracy
The positivity of self concept
Self Esteem
When consumers evaluate themselves by comparing with others (particularly with idealized images in advertising)
Social Comparison
Changing product attitudes by stimulating positive feelings about the self
Self Esteem Advertising
How a person would like to be- partially molded by culture
Ideal Self
A realistic appraisal of qualities a person does and does not possess
Actual Self
Bridging the gaps between the selves
Fantasy
Marketing Communications aimed at individuals with a discrepancy between real and ideal selves
Fantasy Appeals
Different Components of the self
Role Identities
Says that relationships play a part in forming the self
Symbolic Interactionism
Acting the way we assume others expect us to act; confirms perceptions
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Imagining the reactions of others toward us
Looking-Glass Self
Awareness of oneself magnified by the belief that others are watching
Self-conciousness
Heightened concern about one's public "image"
Public Self-conciousness
Concern about appropriateness of products and consumption activities
Public Self Conciousness
Awareness of how one presents oneself in a social environment
Self Monitoring
Says that people with an incomplete self-definition complete this identity by acquiring/displaying associated symbols
Symbolic Self Completion Theory
Consistency between values and things
Self/Product congruence
When the product attributes match an aspect of the self
Self image congruence models
Objects consumers consider part of themselves
Extended Self
Four Levels of extended self
Individual
Family
Community
Group
Personal possessions are an example of which level of the extended self?
Individual
Your residence and furnishings are examples of which level of the extended self?
Family
Your neighborhood or town are examples of which level of the extended self?
Community
The use of personal information to secure credit
Identity Theft
Self assertion and mastery are what types of goals?
Agentic
Agentic goals are socialized toward what gender?
Males
Affiliation and fostering of relations are what types of goals?
Communal
Communal goals are socialized toward what gender?
Females
Stereotypical associations
Sex-Typed Traits
Products that take on masculine or feminine attributes
Sex-Typed Products
Having both masculine and feminine traits
Androgyny
Very sexy for men is an example of what type of product?
androgynous
People who are stereotypically masculine or feminine
Sex-typed people
People with mixed gender characteristics
Androgynous people
The study of male image and the meanings of masculinity
Masculinism
Subjective evaluation of physical self (may or may not reflect reality)
Body Image
A person's feelings about his or her body
Body Cathexis
A particular model (or examplar) of appearance
Ideal of Beauty
Aspects of the body that distinguish between the sexes
Sexual dimorphic markers
Theory that society is obsessed with weight
Fattism
Obsession with perceived appearance flaws
Body dysmorphic disorder
Symbols with male oriented symbolism
Phallic symbols
Freud's Theory includes what three parts?
Id
Ego
Superego
Oriented toward immediate gratification
Id
All about maximizing pleasure and avoiding pain
Pleasure Principle
A person's conscience
Superego
Mediates between the Id and the Superego
Ego
States we must find ways to gratify the id that will be acceptable to the outside world
Reality Principle
What type of research uses Freudian ideas to understand the meanings of products and advertisements?
Motivational
Probe deeply into a few consumers' purchase motivations (Spin off of focus groups)
Depth Interviews
Underlying motives
Latent Motives
An approach to personality that focuses on the quantitative measurement of personality traits
Trait Theory
Identifiable characteristics that define a person
Personality Traits
Trait of being socially outgoing
Extroversion
Trait of being quiet and reserved
Introversion
The degree to which a person likes to try new things
Innovativeness
The amount of emphasis on acquiring and owning
Materialism
The degree to which a person monitors and controls the image of the self projected
Self Consciousness
The degree to which a person likes to think about things
Need for cognition
Denying short-term purchasing whims and resourcefully using what one already owns
Frugality
Introduced the ideas of inner-directed and outer-directed
David Reisman
Shaping behavior to meet group expectations
Power of Conformity
Motivation to conform to the preferences of others versus standing apart from the crowd
Need for Uniqueness
Infividuals who have an individual orientation
Idiocentrics
Individuals who have a group orientation
Allocentrics
Who are more likely to be more content with life and finances?
Idiocentrics
Who are more likely to avoid unhealthy foods?
Allocentrics
Who are more likely to be workaholics?
Idiocentrics
Who spends more time preparing their food?
Allocentrics
Who is more interested in traveling?
Idiocentrics
Who is more likely to work on crafts?
Allocentrics
Traits attributed to a product as if it were a person
Brand personality
The extent to which a consumer holds strong, favorable, and unique associations with a brand
Brand Equity
When inanimate objects are given qualities that make them somehow alive
Animism
Two types of animism
Object is possessed by the soul of the being

Objects are given human characteristics
Celebrity Spokespeople represent which type of animism?
Object is possessed by the soul of the being
When objects are given human characteristics, they are what?
anthromorphized
A pattern of choices of how a person spends time and money
Lifestyle
Says that people sort themselves into groups based on what they like to do, how they spend their leisure time, and how they spend disposable income
Lifestyle Marketing Perspective
Allowing consumers to pursue chosen ways to enjoy life and express social identities is the goal of what?
Lifestyle Marketing
Strategies stating that even unattractive products are more attractive when evaluated with other, like products
Co-Branding strategies
When symbolic meanings of products are related to eachother
Product complementarity
Complementary products used to define, communicate, and perform social roles
Consumption Constellations
Developed to identify groups of consumers with common lifestyles
Segmentation Typologies
Three self orientations of VALS (Values and Lifestyle System)
Principle
Status
Action
Orientation that is guided by a belief system
Principle
Orientation that is guided by the opinions of peers
Status
Orientation that is guided by the desire to impact the world around them
Action
Analyzes consumers in 19 countries and identified 14 common lifestyles
Global MOSAIC
Developed MOSAIC
British firm, Experian
A pattern of food and beverage consumption that reflect the values of a social group
Food Culture
Combining data on consumer expenditures and other socioeconomic factors with geographic information to identify consumers with common consumption patterns
Geodemography
A statistical technique for market segmentation
Cluster Analysis
When purchase history is combined with geodemographic data to learn more about people
Single-source data
What does PRIZM stand for?
Potential Rating Index by Zip Market
How many categories are there in PRIZM?
62
PRIZM: Blue Blood Estates
Most affluent
PRIZM: Public Assistance
Least well off
A lasting, general evaluation of people, objects, advertisements, or issues
Attitude
Anything toward which one has an attitude
Object
True or False: Attitudes don't last
False. Attitudes tend to endure over time
Katz's attitude funtions
Ego defensive
Knowledge
Utilitarian
Value expressive
The camel ads are an example of which attitude function?
Ego-defensive
The camera ad with the pixels is an example of which attitude function?
Knowledge
The breast cancer ad is an example of which attitude function?
Utilitarian
Attitude function dealing with reward and punishment
Utilitarian
The take me fishing ad is an example of which attitude function?
Value Expressive
The way a consumer FEELS about an attitude object
Affect
Involves the person's intentions to DO something with regard to an attitude object
Behavior
The BELIEFS (thoughts/thinking) a consumer has about an attitude object
Cognition
A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to an attitude
Hierarchy of Effects
Involves Affect, Behavior, and Cognition
ABC model of attitudes
Hierarchy based on cognitive information processing
Standard Learning Hierarchy
Hierarchy based on behavioral learning processes
Low-Involvement Hierarchy
Hierarchy based on hedonic consumption
Eperiential Hierarchy
Beliefs -> Affect -> Behavior
Standard Learning Hierarchy
Someone buying a computer would go through which hierarchy of effects?
Standard Learning
Beliefs -> Behavior -> Affect
Low Involvement Hierarchy
Someone buying Special K would be using which hierarchy of effects?
Low involvement
Affect -> Behavior -> Beliefs
Eperiential Hierarchy
Someone who just MUST have that dress is experiencing which hierarchy of effects?
Experiential
Hierarchy that approaches a decision as a problem-solving process
Standard Learning
Hierarchy in which one acts on the basis of emotional reactions
Experiential
Levels of Commitment to an attitude
Compliance
Identification
Internalization
Lowest level of attitude commitment
Compliance
Level of Commitment to an attitude in which one is conforming to a person or group
Identification
Buying an ISU sweatshirt is an example of which level of commitment to an attitude?
Identification
The brand loyalty level of commitment
Internalization
Identifying with a team and talking about it as "my team" is an example of which level of attitude commitment?
Internalization
States that consumers value harmony among thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
Principle of Cognitive Consistency
Implementing a dress code for all marketing classes is an example of which principle?
Cognitive Consistency
States that in order to maintain consistency, one must maintain a positive attitude toward the product
Self Perception Theory
Idea that consumers will comply with a request after agreeing to a smaller request
Foot-in-the-door Technique
Smokers who know smoking is unhealthy and justify it by saying that the weight gain associated with quitting is also unhealthy are using what technique?
Cognitive Dissonance
Three elements of the Triad (balance theory)
Person and their perceptions

an attitude object

some other person or oject
Elemnt seen as belonging to or part of the other
Unit relation
Two elements linked because one has expressed a preference for the other
Sentiment Relation
Celebrity Edorsements are marketing applications of what theory?
Balance
Specify elements that work together to influence evaluations of attitudes
Attitude Models
States that a consumer's attitude will depend on the beliefs about several attributes toward the object
MultiAttribute Models
MultiAttribute Models Specify what 3 elements
Attributes
Beliefs
Importance Weights
The Fishbein Model measures what 3 components of attitude?
Salient Beliefs
Object Attribute Linkages
Evaluation
A process by which a consumer's overall attitude is formed by an overall affective response
Affect Referral
True or false. There is a questionable link between attitude and behavior
True
The extended Fishbein Model
Theory of Reasoned Action
Adresses intentions vs behaviors
Theory of REasoned Action
Social Pressure is what type of norm?
Subjective
Belief that others believe an action should or should not be taken
Normative Belief
Degree to which consumers take into account anticipated reactions
Motivation to comply
HOw someone feels about buying due to the perceived consequences of purchases
Attitude toward the act of buying
The attempt to change attitudes
Persuasion
When consumers agree to let marketers try
Permission Marketing
States that active, goal-directed consumers draw on mass media to satisfy needs
Uses and Gratifications Theory
Level of Interactive response in which the response directly yields a transaction
First order response
Level of interactive response in which the response is not in the form of a transaction
Second Order response
Two important source characteristics
Credibility
Attractiveness
Expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness
Source credibility
When the source's knowledge is not accurate
Knowledge Bias
When the source has knowledge, but the willingness to convey it is compromised
Reporting bias
The more involved a company appears in dissemination of news, the less credible it becomes
Corporate Paradox
Perceived social value
Source Attractiveness
When a celebrity's image and that of the product are similar
Match up hypothesis
When the picture is strongly related to the copy, it is what?
Framed
When visual images allow the receiver to group information at the time of encoding
Chunked
States that people like things that are familiar, even if not initially keen on them
Mere exposure
When a consumer no longer pays attention to the stimulus because of boredom or fatigue
Habituation
Argument containing only positives
Supportive Argument
Argument containing both positive and negative info
Two Sided
Refutational Argument
Two Sided
Recall is better for ____ rather than ____.
Thinking
Feeling
Appeals that inhibit counter arguing
Humorous
Experiential form of story presentation involving the audience emotionally
Drama
When the consumer associates product usage with some subjective sensation
Transformational Advertising
States that once a customer receives a message, he or she begins to process it
Elaboration Likelihood Model
This is taken under conditions of high involvement
The central route to persuasion
This is taken under conditions of low involvement
The peripheral route to persuasion