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465 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
•Introduction and Background for Measurement and Evaluation
•Introduction of Measurement and Evaluation
Began
•Increased interest in fitness began in the late 1970s due to Dr. Kenneth Cooper
–Fitness craze may be linked to publication of Aerobics in 1968
no longer
•Kinesiology no longer for just teachers and coaches
need
•All kinesiology professionals need an understanding of testing
•Timeline of Measurement in Physical Education and Sport
dr. edward
•1861: Dr. Edward Hitchcock developed standards for age, height, strength of the upper arm, girths of the chest, arms, and forearms
dr. edward
–Considered father of measurement in kinesiology
dr. edward
–Field of study known as anthropometry
•Timeline of Measurement in Physical Education and Sport
dr. dudley
•1878: Dr. Dudley Sargent and William Brigham developed strength tests
dr. dudley and william brigham
–Developed 40+ different anthropometric measurements for exercise prescription
who developed modified?
•1931: W.W. Tuttle developed modified block-stepping test for endurance and general training
•1952: Balke Treadmill test
•Timeline of Measurement in Physical Education and Sport
minimum strength
•1954: Kraus-Weber Test for Minimum Strength
school age
•1958: AAHPERD published first fitness test for school-age American kids
AAHperd
–Initial test given to kids was the Physical Best test
FitnessGram
–California currently uses FitnessGram test
•Given to all 5th, 7th, and 9th grade students
DR. Kenneth
•1968: Dr. Kenneth Cooper developed 12-minute walk-run test
•Current Happenings in Measurement in Physical Education and Sport
Current Hapenning
•Physical activity is a complex, multifaceted behavior
7 componentsCurrent Hapenning
–7 components: physical, social, occupational, environmental, intellectual, spiritual, emotional
Growing Tend
•Growing trend to use physical performance for employment decisions
Legal
•Legal concerns when testing
Legal
–Title IX impact
Current Hapenning
•Current Happenings in Measurement in Physical Education and Sport
Current Hapenning
•Challenges of working with older adults
Current Hapenning
•Healthy People 2010: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Current Hapenning
•Competency testing
Current Hapenning
•Authentic assessment
Current Hapenning
•ACSM recommendation for physical activity
ACSM
–30 minutes or more on most days of the week
•Measurement
definition of measurment
•Definition: systematic assignment of numerical vlaues or verbal descriptors to the characteristics of objects or individuals
•Measurement (cont.)
•Measurement vs. Test
measuremetn vs test
–A test must be administered to obtain a measurement
•Measurement vs. Evaluation
measurment vs evaluation
–An evaluation compares the measurements
•Measurement (cont.)
Objective and subjective
•Types of measurements
types of measuremtnsw
–Objective: a measurement that cannot be interpreted any differently
examples of types of measurements
•Example: a person ran the mile in 6:00
subjective def
–Subjective: a measurement that can be interpreted differently
subjective example
•Example: a person is a fast runner
•Measurement (cont.)
•4 Steps in the Measurement Process
4 steps in Measurments
–Define the characteristics you want to measure
4 steps in Measurments
–Select the appropriate test
4 steps in Measurments
–Administer the test
4 steps in Measurments
–Analyae the data
•Evaluation
Define evaluation
•Definition: obtaining information and using it to form judgements
Evaluation steps
•Steps involved
–Define objective of the test
–Measure the performance
–Find comparison values for the test
–Compare performance to standard
–Evaluate the comparison
•Tests
define test
•Definition: measures individual differences on a specific trait
purpose of test
•Use of tests
–Motivation
–Achievement
–Improvement
–Diagnosis
–Prescription
–Grading
–Classification
–Prediction
ØTest Administration
ØSteps for finding the best test
Steps to search
lRead and search the literature
steps to ask
lSeek advice from other professionals
step of possible
lUse the best tests possible
step
lPilot test
step to do
lAdminister the test
step to data
lScore the test
ØRisk Management
define risk management
ØDefinition: systematic analysis of the services offered for personal injury and financial loss
ØSteps to decrease risk
steps to decrease risk
lTest the equipment
steps to decrease risk
lMake sure testing environment is safe
steps to decrease risk
lParticipant readiness
steps to decrease risk
lAdminister readiness
steps to decrease risk
lSafety equipment
ØTest Administrators
ØTest considerations before administering a test
test considerations
lCollect data in professional manner
test considerations
lShow an interest in all participants
test considerations
lPlan ahead and be organized
test considerations
ØAdministering tests
test to administer
ØTest considerations during administering a test
test to administer
lGive clear directions for the test
test to administer
lBe cautious of encouragement
test to administer
•Some tests may be altered by encouragement
test to administer
lSafety concerns
ØConsiderations for maximal effort tests
Maximal effort considerations
ØInstruct subject that the test can be stopped at any time if they feel pain or ill
Maximal effort considerations
ØHow does the test administrator know that the participant is giving their max effort
exmple of maxim test administration
lSchool settings vs. non-school settings
ØScoring tests
multiple trial
ØAdministering multiple trial tests
lSuccessive trials vs. waiting between trials
scoring
ØScoring multiple trials
methods of scoring
lUse best trial
methods of scoring
lUse mean value of the scores
methods of scoring
lEliminate high and low scores and use middle scores
ØTiming of tests
ØWho should time?
who should time?
lNon-participating subject
who should time?
lAutomatic timing system
who should time?
lTester
who should time?
lTrained subject
ØSelection of timing depends on the situation, purpose of the test, and age of the participants
ØTiming of tests
ØWhen does the timer start the watch?
How to begin with a watch?
lOn a verbal command such as “go,” on a whistle, or on a hand signal
How to begin with a watch?
lOn the subject’s first movement
How to begin with a watch?
lOn the initial movement of the implement
Timing of test?
ØChoice of when to start the timing depends on the most appropriate method and should remain consistent for all subjects
ØTiming of tests
ØWhere should the timer stand?
where should it be located?
lClose to and perpendicular to the finish line
where should it be located?
lWhen calling out time to runners as they pass, face the runner.
examples of location time?
•Start yelling off times several seconds before the cross in front of you
ØScoring tests
ØScore all participants the same
How to score?
lMust be fair and consistent in the manner used to score tests
How to score?
ØUse exact instructions for everyone involved in the test
ØModifying Tests
ØStandardized tests
standarized test?
lDO NOT MODIFY!!! Follow instructions exactly as they are written.
ØTests for your own purposes can be modified
tests of modifying?
lSome tests do no give exact instructions, so the tester must determine appropriate instructions
tests of modifying?
lChanging a test effects reliability and validity
ØModifying Tests (cont.)
ØModifying a test due to time constraints
Modifying examples?
lTest over 2 or more days
Modifying examples?
lHave more stations set-up
Modifying examples?
lLook for a different test
Modifying examples?
lAs a last resort, modify the test
ØSport Skills Tests
ØProcedure for constructing skills tests
Procedure for constructing skill tests?
lDetermine the purpose of the skill test
Procedure for constructing skill tests?
lMake a list of essential skills or components necessary to perform the skill
Procedure for constructing skill tests?
lDetermine the tests that you want to use to measure each of the essential components
Procedure for constructing skill tests?
lCompare what you want to test with what you are actually testing
Procedure for constructing skill tests?
lEstablish reliability, validity, and objectivity of the tests
Procedure for constructing skill tests?
lAdminister the test and establish norms
ØSport Skills Tests
ØDetermining the validity of a sports skill test
lConstruct validity
Definition of validity of sports?
•Definition: The skilled people should score high and the unskilled people should score low if the test id valid.
ØTest Bias
definiation of bias?
ØDefinition: One group who takes the test score higher or lower on the test because of a common characteristic of the group
assumption of bias
ØIt is assumed that the test itself is valid, reliable, and objective
types of bias?
ØTypes of test bias: race, gender, socioeconomic status, disability, sexual orientation, culture
ØTest Bias
when is bias tested?
ØTest bias becomes a concern when one group taking the test has an advantage.
Most common b ias?
ØMost common causes of test bias in kinesiology are gender and age.
ØTest Bias
ØMethods to accommodate test bias
Methods of bias?
lProvide different norms for different groups
Methods of bias?
lAdminister different tests to different groups
Methods of bias?
lUse different testing procedures or different equipment
Methods of bias?
lGive directions verbally and written
ØAdministrative Concerns in Test Selection
Tests selection concern
ØRelevance
Tests selection concern
ØEducational value
Tests selection concern
ØEconomic value
Tests selection concern
ØTime
Tests selection concern
ØNorms
Tests selection concern
ØDiscrimination
Tests selection concern
ØBias
Tests selection concern
ØReliance on another person
Tests selection concern
ØSafety
nTypes of Standards
types of standard
nNorm reference standard (NRT)
types of standard
nCriterion reference standard (CRT)
¨Uses of CRT
nEvaluation
nTypes of evaluation
types evaluation
¨Formative
example of formative
nOccurs during the activity
types of evalatuion
¨Summative
examples of summative
nOccurs after the activity
nNorms
Norms provide
nProvide basis for evaluation
types of norms
nTypes of norms
types of norms
¨Local
norms types
¨State
norms types
¨national
nGoals & Objectives
goals define?
nGoals: an endpoint for the future
objectives define
nObjectives: brief, clear statements that describe desired outcomes
relation of goals and objectives?
nBoth are important when administering a test
criteria of both?
nCriteria for effective goals/obejectives
nCharacteristics of a Test
nFour components of a good test
four components of good test
¨Define the characteristics to be measured
four components of good test
¨Validity
four components of good test
¨Reliability
four components of good test
¨Objectivity
nSelecting a test
nConsiderations when administering a test
consideration when administering a test
¨Clear test directions and scoring
consideration when administering a test
¨Cost
consideration when administering a test
¨Time
consideration when administering a test
¨Ease of administration
consideration when administering a test
¨Ease of scoring
consideration when administering a test
¨Availability of norms
nValidity
validity
nNo test, scale, or inventory is 100% valid or valid for all circumstances
nNorm referenced test validity
nContent validity
content of validity
¨Degree to which the sample of items, tasks, or questions on a test are representative of some defined area of content
content of validity
¨Relies on subjective decision making
nNorm referenced test validity
nCriterion-related evidence of validity
definition of criterion-related evidence of validity
¨Definition: comparing test scores with one or more external variables that are considered direct measures of the characteristic or behavior
¨2 Types
tyeps of criterion-related validity
nConcurrent validity
tyeps of criterion-related validity
nPredictive validity
nNorm referenced test validity
nConstruct-related evidence of validity
definition of construct-related evidence of validity
¨Definition: degree to which a test measures an attribute or trait that cannot be directly measured
¨Methods to establish construct validity
methods construct validity
nGroup Differences Method
methods construct validity
nValidate each individual test for a battery of tests
methods construct validity
nCorrelational evidence
nCriterion referenced test validity
nDomain-referenced method
methods of domain-referenced method
¨Requires careful description of criterion behavior
methods of domain-referenced method
¨Requires evidence that the test adequately represents the domain
nCriterion referenced test validity
nDecision Method
decision of criterion referenced test validity
¨Can only be used when the ability to correctly classify a person as master or non-master is present
nTest Components
nReliability
reliability definition?
nDefinition: consistency of an individual when repeatedly performing the same test
reliability refers to?
nReliability refers to the dependability of test scores.
A test can be?
nA test can be reliable without being valid, but a valid test has to be reliable.
nFactors that Affect Reliability
factors affecting reliability?
nEquipment
factors affecting reliability?
nAdministrator
factors affecting reliability?
nSubjects
factors affecting reliability?
nTest environment
nTwo Types of Reliability
types of reliability?
1.Reliability of Norm-Referenced Tests
define one of type?
uDefinition: The test was administered on 2 different occasions to the same people and the same differences between people’s scores were detected.
give example of norm-referenced tests?
uExamples
nTwo Types of Reliability
the other reliability type?
2.Reliability of Criterion-Referenced Tests
define criterion-referenced
uDefinition: consistency of classification as master or nonmaster
nTypes of Reliability Seen in Kinesiology
types of relibity tests?
1.Single test administration: consistency of a test across a single administration
types of relibity tests?
2.Test-Retest: test shows consistency when an individual is tested twice within a short period of time
types of relibity tests?
3.Individual test score: estimating the standard error of measurement
nFactors Influencing the Reliability of a Test
factors influencing reliablity?
nType of test
give example of type test influence?
uReliability coefficients for different tests
factors influencing reliablity?
nRange of ability
factors influencing reliablity?
nLevel of ability
factors influencing reliablity?
nTest length
factors influencing reliablity?
nTest administration procedures
nTwo types of Objectivity
named a objective type?
1.Tester reliability
tester reliablity define
uIntrajudge: consistency in scoring when the same person scores the same test the same way on two or more occasions
tester reliablity define
uInterjudge: consistency between 2 or more independent judgments on the same performance
nTwo types of Objectivity
named a objective type?
2.Instrument reliability
define instrument reliablity?
uDefinition: reliability of the equipment used during the test
what is not to consider of instrument?
uDoes not consider the reliability of the person who is operating the equipment
►Reading and Understanding Research
►12 Step Guide to Understanding a Qualitative Research Report
citation, purpose, rationale, participants, context, steps in sequence, data, analysis, results, conclusions, cautions, discussion
►1. Citation
citation question>
►What study report is this?
citation requirement?
►Record a complete reference citation in APA format.
►2. Purpose and General Rationale
purpose questions?
►What was the purpose of the study?
purpose questions?
►How did the authors make a case for its general importance?
►3. Fit and Specific Rationale
questions of fit?
►How does the topic of the study fit into the existing research literature?
questions of fit?
►How does this study add to the current knowledge?
►4. Participants
participant ?
►Who was the author(s) and how was he or she related to the purpose, participants, and study site?
particpant ?
►Describe who was studied (give number and characteristics) and how they were selected.
►5. Context
context taken place?
►Where did the study take place?
important of context?
►Describe important characteristics.
►6. Steps in Sequence
steps in sequence
►Describe the main procedural steps in the study in the order they were performed.
examples of steps in sequence
§Include time required and any important relationships among the steps.
►7. Data
data ?
►What constituted data?
data ?
►How was it collected?
data ?
►What was the role of the investigator in that process?
►8. Analysis
analysis?
►What form of data analysis was used and what was it designed to reveal?
►9. Results
results ?
►What did the author(s) identify as the primary results?
§Findings from the data analysis
►10. Conclusions
conclusions ?
►What did the author(s) conclude from the how the results answered the purpose?
conclusions ?
►How did the events and experiences of the entire study contribute to the conclusions?
►11. Cautions
cautions?
►What cautions does the author(s) raise about the study or about interpreting the results?
cautions?
►Add any of your own reservations about the credibility of the methods?
cautions exmple
§Trustworthiness and believability
►12. Discussion
discussion?
►What interesting facts or ideas did you learn from reading the report?
discussion?
§Include anything that was of value, including results, research designs and methods, references, instruments, history, etc.
oStatistics
oQuantitative Statistics
QUANTITIVE DEPENDENT
oDependent variable: variable that the researcher wants to analyze
QUANTITIVE INDEPENDENT
oIndependent variable: variable that the researcher manipulates
oActivity
oName the independent and dependent variables in the examples.
1.The purpose of the study was to determine the weight gains of underweight adults who attended two different health classes.
2.The purpose of the study was to determine if the number of hours a college student studied per month could be used to predict their GPA.
3.The purpose of the study was to determine if the addition of a dietary supplement to an exercise program resulted in significant strength gains.
oNormal Curve
oStandard Scores
DEFINITON OF STANDARD SCORES
oDefinition: a score that is derived from a set of raw data
TYPES OF SCORES
oTypes
TYPES OF SCORES
nz-scores
TYPES OF SCORES
nT-scores
TYPES OF SCORES
nPercentiles
TYPES OF SCORES
nPercents
TYPES OF SCORES
nRanks
oz-scores
DEFINE Z SCORES
oDefinition: standard score with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1
oEquation
X DEFINE
X DEFINE
S DEFINE
oT-scores
t SCORES DEFINE
oDefinition: standard score used in many physical education skill tests with a mean of 50 and a SD of 10
oEquation
oPercentiles
oDefinition: percentage of individuals in a group who have achieved a certain quantity
oPercents
DEFINE PERCENTS
oDefinition: converting a score by making a fraction or ratio of the individual score divided by the total and multiplied by 100
oRanks
DEFINE RANKS
oDefinition: converting quantitative scores so that each person within the set knows how they stood in comparison to the group
oDescriptive Statistics
oMeasures of Central Tendency
Mode:
oMode: single number, within the data set, that appears most often
median?
oMedian: 50th percentile
mean?
oMean: arithmetic average
oMeasures of Variability
variablitly range
oRange: high score minus the low score
v. standard deviation
oStandard deviation: a measure of the spread of the data set
variablity variance
oVariance: measure of statistical dispersion, indicating how its possible values are spread around the expected value
oPlotting Raw Data
plotting raw/scatter plot
oScatter plot: shows a correlation and regression
oPlotting Raw Data
example of raw data/plotting
oPie charts
oPlotting Raw Data
plotting raw data?
oBar or column charts: show individual scores for a variety of variables
oPlotting Raw Data
ploting raw data
oLine charts: to show improvements over time
oPlotting Raw Data
ploting histograms
oHistograms: individual raw data are converted to grouped data and plotted on an x-axis
oTerms used to describe distributions on a histogram
oModality
term modality
nUnimodal
term modality
nBimodal
term modality
nMultimodal
oSkewness
nPositive
nnegative
oTerms used to describe distributions on a histogram
oKurtosis
terms used kurtosis
nLeptokurtic
terms used kurtosis
nMesokurtic
terms used kurtosis
nplatykurtic
oInterpreting numerical values associated with skewness
oSkewness
most common values
nvalues between +1.00 and -1.00 are considered a normal distribution
n>+1.0 means positively skewed
n<-1.0 means negatively skewed
oInterpreting numerical values associated with kurtosis
oKurtosis
nValues between +1.00 and -1.00 are considered a normal distribution
leptokurtotic
n>+1.0 means a leptokurtotic distribution
platykurtotic
n<-1.0 means a platykurtotic distribution
lBivariate Correlation
definition of bivariate correlation
lDefinition: describes the relationships between 2 variables
examples of bivariate
lCorrelation coefficients and scatter plots can be used
lScatter Plot of Relationships
lRelationships
positive scatter plot
lPositive: high scores on one variable are paired with high scores on the second variable and vice versa
–Also referred to as a direct relationship between the 2 variables
lRelationships
negative
lNegative: high scores on one variable are paired with low scores on the second variable
negative other name
–Also referred to as an inverse relationship
lRelationships
no relation
lNo relation: scores on one test has no bearing on scores from another test
lCorrelation Coefficient
coefficient
lCorrelation coefficient denoted as “r”
bivarete
lBivariate correlation coefficient determines direction and strength of the relationship between the 2 variables
bivarete determins
–+ or – sign indicates direction
bivarete -
–numeric number indicates strength
lInferential Stats
definition infernetial
lDefinition: to make an assumption about a set of data from a sample of subjects that is assumed to represent the population
lInferential Stats
sample of inferential
lSample: represents a portion of the population from which measurements are actually obtained
population in inferential stats
lPopulation: all units possessing a certain characteristic defined by the researcher
lSampling Techniques
lRandom sampling
simple random:
–Simple random: insures that each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected
stratisified random:
–Stratified random: insures that all subsets of the population are represented in appropiate numbers
lSampling Techniques
lNon-random
non-random
–Volunteers
•Sample of convenience
lSampling Problems
sampling problems
lResponse rate
sampling problems
lRefusal to participate
sampling problems
lAttrition
uTailed Tests
one tailed test:
uOne-tailed test: sensitive to differences in only one direction
•Used when the direction of the difference between populations is known or when the researcher is concerned about a differencein one direction
two-tailed test:
uTwo-tailed test: sensitive to significant differences in either direction
uP-value
def P Value
uDefinition: the area under the tail or tails of a distribution beyond the value of the test statistic or the probability that the value of the calculated test statistic occurred by chance
uHypothesis Steps
first hypothesis
1.State the null hypothesis.
null hypothesis
•Ho: μ1 = μ2
uHypothesis Steps
second hypothesis
2.State the alternative hypothesis
hypothesis
•HA : μ1 < μ2
hypothesis
•HA : μ1 > μ2
hypothesis
•HA : μ1 ≠ μ2
uHypothesis Steps
third hypothesis
3.Determine the critical value and rejection regions
•Level of significance (denoted as α)
define level of significance
uDefinition: probability that defines how unlikely the event must be before the researcher can reject the null hypothesis
most common
u Most common value is 0.05
•Level of confidence
uHypothesis Steps
fourth hypothesis
4.Compute the calculated value
•Use t-test or z test statistic
uHypothesis Testing
5 hypotheisis
5.Come to a conclusion about HO
•Either reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis
5th 1st method
•Method 1: use calculated and tabled values
•obtained value ≤ tabled value: fail to reject Ho
•obtained value ≥ tabled value: reject Ho
5th method 2
•Method 2: use p-value and α
reject
•p ≤ α : reject Ho
fail to reject
•p ≥ α: fail to reject Ho
uHypothesis Testing
uReport the conclusion in non-technical terms
uPossible Errors in Hypothesis Testing
type 1 error
uType I error
type 2 error
uType II error