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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Derivatives of surface ectoderm for eye
Corneal Epithelium
Epith of eyelids
Derivatives of neuroectoderm for eye
Retina and optic nerve
Pupillary muscle of the iris
Epith of the iris and ciliary body
Derivatives of mesoderm for eye
Extrinsic eye muscles
Internal structures of eyelids
Derivatives of Neural crest for eye
Ciliary muscles
Corneal endothelium
Contact of optic vesicle with surface ectoderm initiates...
1) A thickening of surface ectoderm to form lens placode
2) invagination of optic vesicle to form optic cup
Transcription factor important for proper lens development
Reaction of lens cells to FGF from retina
1)Become post-mitotic
2) Elongate along the rostro-caudal axis of the lens
3) Express intracellular crystallin proteins and become transparent lens fibers
Source of primary lens fibers
Cells at posterior pole of lens (form the lens nucleus)
Blood supply for developing optic cup
Hyaloid artery (int. carotid to opthalmic to hyaloid)
Location of hyaloid artery
Choroidal/Retinal fissure
Fate of inner/outer wall of optic cup
Outer= Retinal Pigment epithelium
Inner= 9 layers of the neural retina
In eye development what does the external limiting membrane separate? The internal?
External limiting membrane= Outer neuroblastic cells from the intraretinal space

Internal limiting membrane= inner neuroblastic cells from vitreous space
Origin of photoreceptors
Origin of retinal ganglion cells and modified neural cells of the retina
Photoreceptors = outer neuroblastic layer
Retinalganglion cells = inner neuroblastic layer
Derivatives of anterior rim of the optic cup
Iris and ciliary body
2 origins of ciliary body and iris endothelium
Pigmented cells of the posterior wall of the optic cup
Superficial cells of the innermost region of the retinal layer
Origin of ciliary muscles
Origin of zonules of zinn
Ciliary processes
Origin of Anterior covering of the iris
Origin of dilator pupillae
Neural crest
Origin of sphincter pupillae
Neural crest
Origin of cornea
Surface ectoderm covering the anterior optic cup
Mesenchyme surrounding the optic cup
Neural crest cells derived from the lip of the optic cup
Origin of primary stroma of cornea
Surface ectoderm under the influence of surface ectoderm
Origin of secondary stroma of cornea
Neural crest cells
Origin of descemets membrane and bowman's membrane
Bowman's Membrane = Secreted by corneal epithelium
Descemet's Membrane = Secreted by corneal endothelium
Thyroxin in eye development
Dehydrates the cornea
Origin of chambers of the eye
Derivatives of the mesenchyme involving chambers of the eye
2 layers
Outer layer = corneal stroma
Inner layer= iridopupillary membrane
Origin of otic placodes
Surface ectoderm near 2nd pharygeal arch
Origin of VIII nerve spiral ganglion
Neural crest Epithelial cells
Origin of sensory hair cells of organ of corti
Neural crest Epithelial cells
Origin of Basial membrane and supporting cells of the organ of corti (pillar cells, phalangeal cells)
Ectoderm cells
origin of middle ear cavity
1st pharygeal pouch (tubotympanic recess)
Origin of tympanic membrane
Outer ectoderm, mesoderm, inner endoderm
Differential innervation of hillocks 1-6
Hillocks 1-3 = Facial nerve
Hillocks 4-6 = C2
Attachment to superior horn of thyroid cartilage
Thyrohyoid membrane
Vertebral levels for larynx
Action of thyroarytenoid
Loosens vocal folds
Action of Cricothyroid
Tenses vocal folds
Innervation of muscles of the larynx
Recurrent Vagal except for cricothyroid
Location of superior vagal ganglion
Jugular foramen
Where is parakeratinized epithelium found?
Vermillion border
Hard palate
What do the gums lack?
Submucosa and glands
Taste bud with keratinized tip
Ion channel effects of tastes
Salty = Direct entry of Na+
Sour = Decreased K+ permeability
Bitter = binding to G-protein coupled receptors leads to increased IP3 which causes increased Ca++
Sweet = binding to G-protein-coupled receptors causes increased cAMP and decreased K+ permeability
Contents of saliva
Mucus, proteins, salts, ptyalin (salivary amylase) lingual lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin, IgA
Type of gland minor salivary glands
Short tubular glands
Staining of striated ducts
Reddish due to numerous mitochondria
Function of Striated ducts
Resorb Na+, Cl-
Secrete bicarbonate, IgA, Kallikrein
Type of granules in parotid gland
salivary amylase (ptyalin)
IgA (inactivates antigens)
Crystatin, hystatin, lactoferrin (antimicrobial proteins)
Na+, Cl-
Reaction of parotid gland to nervous stimulus
Parasympathetic = AcH, stimulates formation and secretion of serous saliva
Sympathetic = NE, secretion of mucus and enzymatic components
Diagnostic of submandibular gland
5:1 ratio of serous to mucus acini
Mucus and protein in saliva form these over teeth which act as a barrier against acids, retains moisture, and regulates adherence of bacteria
Diagnostic of sublingal gland
Serous demilunes with predominantly mucus acini
Filling of pulp chamber
Vascular areolar CT
Proteoglycans and glycoproteins
Root canal
Apical foramen
Type of cells found at apical foramen of teeth
Odontoblasts producing dentin
Periodontal ligament
Holds tooth in socket, consists of dense irregular CT
Junctional epithelium on teeth
Where epithelium attaches to enamel surface by hemidesmosomes, forms a seeling collar or barrier around the neck of the tooth
Type of substance enamelins and amelogenin are
Lay down enamel
Dentin makeup
Type I collagen, proteoglycans and glycoproteins (prevents tooth from fracturing)
Path of odontoblastic processes
Extend through dentinal tubule to the enamel-dentin junction
Make up of Cementum
Mostely Type I collagen fibers
Trapped within lacunae cementum matrix like osteocytes
Location of cementoblasts
Outer surface at periodontal ligmant space
Sharpey's fibers
Bundles of collagen fibers in periodontal ligmanet, embedded in alveolar bone and in cementum (holds tooth in place), a fibrous joint
Stages of tooth formation
Bud, cap, bell
Occurences in bud stage
Oral ectoderm forms dental lamina
Ectomesenchyme from neural crest cells surrounds bud
Occurences in early cap stage
3 layered structure is formed
Outer enamel epithelium
Inner enamel epithelium
Stellate reticulum between the two is formed
Occurences in late cap stage
Ectomesenchyme condenses to form dental papilla (give rise to odontoblasts and dental pulp)
Cervical loop is formed (where two ectodermal layers make the sharpe bend)
Dental sac = vascular tissue around the tooth germ that is formed from the ectomesenchyme
Occurences in bell stage
Stratum intermedium between stellate reticulum and inner enamel epithelium forms
Origin of ameloblasts
Inner epithelium under influence of stratum intermedium
Origin of odontoblasts
Inner cells of the dermal papillae under the influence of ameloblasts
Appositional phase
Deposition of dentin and enamel
Tomes process
Part of the matrix that is unmineralized and does not continue completely through the enamel
Origin of root of tooth
Hertwig epithelial root sheath
Origin of cementoblasts
As hertwig epithelial root sheath degenerates in cervical loop region, the ectomesenchyme cells come in contact with dentin. They differentiate into cementoblasts and deposit cementum