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32 Cards in this Set

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Lateral row of the sacrum ends at the ...
Inferolateral angle (ILA)
Passage ways:

...:
Sacral nerves from the cauda equina

Four ...:
Passage of vent/dorsal rami of 1st four sacral spinal nerves

...:
Near apex, defect formed by failure of laminal closure of 5th sacral vertebra
Location for sacral epidural block
Sacral canal
B/L foramina
Sacral hiatus
What is the most anterior superior aspect of the sacrum called?
Sacral promontory
Sacral base is recorded as ... (posterior) or ... (anterior)
shallow
deep
ILA is recorded as ... (posterior) or ... (anterior) or ... or ...
shallow
deep
inferior
superior
Lumbosacral facets face ..., ... and ....

SI articulation converges ... and ...
superior, medial and posterior
inferiorly and posteriorly
Muscles attached to the sacrum ... responsible for SI motion.

Motion at the SI joints results from muscular actions that move the back and legs.

The sacrum is the “...”
are not
Great Compensator/Accomodator
Superior transverse –

S1-S2, posterior to the SI joint (... Axis)

flexion & extension with …

... (nod) & ... in CS mechanics
Respiratory
respiration
Nutation
Counternutation
Middle transverse-

Anterior convexity of the upper and lower limbs of the SI joint

sacral ... flexion and extension (takes place at level of S2)
postural
Inferior transverse:

Posterior/inferior part of the inferior limb of the SI joint

Axis about which ... rotation occurs
innominate
4 types of sacral motion:

... - ambulation engages the same side oblique axis as the weight bearing leg

... - Inhalation moves the sacral base posterior, exhalation anterior

... - CRI or Primary Respiratory Mechanism Nutates with extension and Counternutates with flexion

... - as person bends forward sacral base moves anteriorly, until terminal flexion and sacrotuberous ligaments restrict and the base moves posteriorly (as a stabilizing force)
Dynamic
Respiratory
Inherent
Postural
Sacral motion:

Flexion occurs when sacral base is moving ...

Extension occurs when sacral base is moving ...
anteriorly
posteriorly
Forward rotation of the sacral base around the middle transverse axis is called: ... = ...
Flexion
Nutation
Posterior motion of the sacral base around the middle transverse axis is described as:
... = ...
Extension
Counternutation
The middle transverse axis at the level of ... allows for postural flexion and extension that is coupled with but ... in direction of lumbar flexion and extension.
S2
opposite
Normal sacral motion during ambulation only involves neutral to anterior positioning of the sacrum around these oblique axes. The sacrum does not go into a posterior position (no ... or ...) during the normal walking cycle

Therefore most somatic dysfunction in the sacrum involves anterior torsions about an oblique axis (..., or ...)
R on L
L on R
L on L
R on R
Inherent Motion: Superior transverse axis

The superior transverse axis at the level of ... is involved in ... flexion and extension and is synchronous with sphenobasilar flexion and extension, pulling on the sacral attachment at S2.
S1
respiratory
Forward rotation of the sacral base around the superior transverse axis is called Craniosacral ... (...).
Extension
Nutation
Posterior movement of the sacral base around the Superior transverse axis is described as Craniosacral ... or (...).
Flexion
Counternutation
Inferior Transverse Axis:

The inferior transverse axis allows for rotation of the ilia on the sacrum during walking and is therefore described as ... motion.
iliosacral
Sacral Somatic Dysfunction:

Once TART is found the specific diagnosis is distinguished by using motion tests to distinguish side of dysfunction (...) and anterior or posterior movement of the sacral base (...). And then landmarks (... and ... of the sacrum) to diagnose the somatic dysfunction.
seated flexion test
spring test
sacral sulcus
inferior lateral angle (ILA)
If the sacrum is rotated left and the sacral base moves forward: (– )Spring. It can only do this about a ... axis. ... sacral torsion.
left
Left on left
If the sacrum is rotated left and the sacral base resists forward motion / stuck backwards: (+) Spring. It can only do this about a ... axis. ... sacral torsion.
right
Left on right
If the sacrum is rotated right and the sacral base moves forward: (–) Spring. It can only do this about a ... axis. ... sacral torsion.
right
right on right
If the sacrum is rotated right and the sacral base resists forward motion / stuck backwards: (+) Spring. It can only do this about a ... axis. ... sacral torsion.
left
Right on left
RULES OF L5 ON THE SACRUM:

#1: WHEN L5 IS SIDEBENT, A SACRAL OBLIQUE AXIS IS ENGAGED ON THE ... SIDE AS THE SIDEBENDING
SAME
RULES OF L5 ON THE SACRUM:

#2: WHEN L5 IS ROTATED, THE SACRUM ROTATES IN THE ... DIRECTION AROUND AN OBLIQUE AXIS [ ROTATE IN ... DIRECTIONS ]
OPPOSITE
OPPOSITE
RULES OF L5 ON THE SACRUM:

#3 THE POSITIVE SEATED F.B.T. IS FOUND ON THE ... SIDE OF THE OBLIQUE AXIS
OPPOSITE
The seated flexion test distinguishes several diagnosis as possibilities from the start:

Seated flexion test positive on the right:
-..., ..., ... flexion/extension

Seated flexion positive on the left:
-..., ..., ... flexion/extension
L on L
R on L
R uni

R on R
L on R
L uni
The Spring Test assesses the ability of the sacral base to move forward- a negative test allows for spring while a positive test has no spring (resists forward motion)

Positive spring test-posterior dysfunction
-..., ..., uni/bilateral ...

Negative spring test-anterior dysfunction
-..., ..., uni/bilateral ...
R on L
L on R
extension

L on L
R on R
flexion
What are the 2 anterior torsions of the sacrum?
left on left sacral torsion
right on right sacral torsion
What are the 2 posterior torsions of the sacrum?
right on left sacral torsion
left on right sacral torsion