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103 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
aggregate planning
the process of determining the quantity and timing of production over an intermediate time frame
available-to-promise
the quantity of items that can be promised to the customer; the difference between planned production and customer orders already received
backlog
accumulated customer orders to be completed at a later date
backordering
ordering an item that i temporarily out of stock
capable to promise
the quantity of items that can be produced and made available at a later date
chase demand
an aggregate planning strategy that schedules production to match demand and absorbs variations in demand by adjust the size of the workforce
collaborative planning
sharing information and synchoronizing production plans across the supply chain
disaggregation
the process o breaking down the aggregate plan into more detailed plans
level production
an aggregate planning that produces units at a constant rate and uses inventory to absorb variations in demand
linear decision rule (LDR)
a mathematical technique that solves a set of four quadratic equations to determins the optimal workforce size and production rate
lost sales
forfeited sales for out-of-stock items
management coefficients model
an aggregatge planning technique that uses regression analysis to improve the consistency of production planning decisions
mixed strategy
an aggregate planning strategy that vaires two or more capacity factor to determins a feasible production plan
peak demand
staffing for high levels of customer service
pure strategy
an aggregate planning strategy that varies only one capacity factor in determing a feasible production plan
sales & operations planning
a process for coordinating supply and demand
search decision rule (SDR)
a pattern search alogirthm for aggregate planning
yield management
the process of determining the percentage of seats or rooms to be allocated to different fare classes
assemble to order
a manufacturing environment in which major subassemblies are produced in advance of a customer's order and are then configured to order
backward scheduling
scheduling backward from a due date to determine when to begin a job
best of breed
a selection of ERP modules from different vendors
bill of material (BOM)
a list of all the materials, parts, and assemblies that make up a product, including quantities, parent-component relationships and order of assembly
capacity
the maximum capability to produce
capacity requirements planning (CRP)
a computerized system that projects the load from a given material plan onto the capacity of a system and identifies underloads and overloads
cumulative lead time
the total length of time required to manufacture a product; also, the longest path through a product structure
customer relationships management (CRM)
software that plans and execute business processes that involve customer interaction
cycle counting
a method for auditing inventory accuracy that counts inventory and reconciles errors on a cyclical schedule rather than once a years
efficiency
how well a machine or worker performs compared to a standard output level
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
software that organizes and manages a company's business processes by sharing information across functional areas
expedite
to speed up order so that they are completed in less than their normal lead time
explosion
the process of determing requirement for lower level item by multiplying the planned orders of parent item b the quantity per assembly of component items
forward scheduling
scheduling forward from today's date to determine the earliest time a job can be completed
item master file
a file that contain inventory status and descriptive infomation on every item in inventory
load
the standard hours of work assigned to a facility
load leveling
the process of balancing underloads and overloads
load percent
the ratio of load to capacity
load profile
a chart that compared released orders and planned order with capacity of a facility
lot sizing
determining the quantities in wchihc items are usually made or purchased
master production schedule (MPS)
a schedule for the production of end items (usually final products). It drives the MRP process that schedules the production of component parts
material requirements planning(MRP)
a computerized inventory control and production planning system for generating puchase order and work orders of materials, components, and assemblies
modular bill of material
a special bill of material used to plan the production of products with many optional features
netting
the process of subtracting on-hand quantities and schedule receipts from gross requirements to produce net requirements
periodic order quantitiy
a lot sizing technique that order at set time intervals
product lifecycle management(PLM)
software that manages the product development process, product life cycles, and design collaboration with supplies anc customers
product structure file
a file that contains computerized bills of material for all products
SOA
service oriented architecture; a software architecture that bundles together and stand-alone services
supply chain management (SCM)
software that plans and execute busines processes related to supply chains
time fence
a date specified by management beyond which no changes in the master schedule are allowed
time-phased bill of material
an assembly chart shown against a time scale
time phasing
the process of subtracting an item's lead time from its due date to determins when an order should be released
utilization
the percentage of available working time that a worker spends working or a machine operating
XML
extensible markup language; used to help different ERP systems communicate over the internet
andons
call lights installed at workstations to notify manement and other workers of a quality problem in production
breakdown maintenance
a maintenance activity that involves repairs needed to make a failed machine operation
external setup
setup activities that can be peformed in advance while the machine is operating
five why's:
repeadly ask "why?" until a root cause is identified
general-purpose machines
machines that perform basic functions such as turning, drilling, and milling
internal setup
setup activities that can be perofmred only when the machine is stopped
jidoka
the authority given to the workers to stop the assembly line when quality problems are encountered
just-in-time(JIT)
smoothing the flow of material to arrive just as it is needed
kaizen
a japanese term for a system of continous improvement
kanban
a card corresponding to a standard quantity of production (or size container) used in the pull system to authorize the production or withdrawal of goods
kanban square
a marked area designated to hold a certain amount of items; an empty square is the signal to produce more items
lean consumption
minimizing customer time and effort in the consumption process
lean production
both a philopshy and an integrated system of management that emphasizes the elimination of waste and the continous improvement of operations
lean six sigma
a combination of lean's principles for elminating waste with six sigma's reduction of variability
manufacuting cell
a group of dissimilar machines brough together to manufacture a family of parts with similar shapes or processing requirements
material kanban
a rectangular-shaped kanban used to order material in advance of a process
muda
anything order than the minimum amount of equipment, materials, parts, space, and time that are absolutely essential to add value to the product
multifunctional workers
workers who have been trained to perform more than one job or function
poka-yoke
any foolproof device or mechanism that prevents defects from occuring
preventive maintenance
a system of daily maintance,periodic inspection, and preventive repairs designed to reduce the probability of machine breakdown
production kanban
a card authorizing the production of a container of goods
pull system
a production sytem in which items are manufactured only when called for by the users of those items
push system
a production system in which items are manufactured according to a schedule prepared in advance
signal kanban
a triangula kanban dused as a reorder point to signal production at the previous workstation
supplier kanban
a kanband that rotates between a factory and its supplier
takt time
the cycle time of an operation paced to the rate of customer demand
total productive maintaince (TPM)
an approach to machine maintenance that combines the practice of preventive maintenance with the concepts of total quality and employer involvement
undercapacity scheduling
the allocation of extra time in a schedule for nonproductive tasks such as problem solving or maintenance
uniform production levels
the result of smoothing production requirements of the final assembly line
visual control
procedures and mechanism for making problems visible
withdrawl kanband
a card authorizing the withdrawal and movement of a container of goods
advanced planning and scheduling (APS)
a software system that uses intelligent anlystical gtools and techniques to develop realistic schedules
dispatch list
a shop paper that specifies the sequence in which jobs should be processed; it is often derived from specific sequency rules
drum-buffer rope
a concept in theory of contrains where the drum sets the pace of production, buffer is placed in front of the bottleneck, and rope communicates changes
finite scheduling
an approach to schedulingt that loads jobs in priority order and delays those job for which current capacity is exceeded
flow time
the time that it takes for ajob to "flow "through the system; that is, its completion time
Gantt chart
a bar chart that shows a job's progress graphically or compares actual against planned performance
genetic algorithms
a method that generates possible solutions based on genetic combinations of previous solutions
infinite scheduling
an approach to scheduling that inittially assumes infinite capacity and then manually "levels the loan" of resources that have exceeded capacity
input/output(I/O) control
a procedure for monitoring the input to and output from a work center to regular the flow of work through a system
Johnsons rule
an algorithm for sequencing any number of jobs through two serial operations to minimize makespan
load leveling
the process of smoothing out the work assigned across time and the available resources
loading
the process of assigning work to individual workers or machines
makespan
the time that it takes for a group of jobs to be compled--that is, the completion time of the last job in a group
manufacturing execution system (MES)
manufacturing software that monitors operations, collects data, and controls processes on the shop floor
scheduling
the determination of when labor, equipment, and facilities are needed to produce a product or provide a service
sequencing
the process of assigning priorities to jobs so that they are processed in a particular order
shop floor control (SFC)
scheduling and monitoring day-to-day production in a job shop;also known as production control or prodution activity control
tardiness
the difference between's a job's due date and it's completion time for jobs completed after their due date
theory of contraints
a finite scheduling approach that differentiates between bottleneck and nonbottleneck resources and between transfer batches and process batches
work package
shop paperwork that travels witha job to specify what work needs to be done at a particular machine center and where the item should be routed next