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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Levels of constraint
the degree of specificity, control, and precision a researcher has in a research setting.
Types of Field Research (6)
Naturalistic observation
Case studies
Archival research
Program evaluation
Field Experiments
Challenge of Low-Constraint Research
Involves observation of participants in their natural surroundings
Can be difficult to observe behavior in natural surroundings
Often we are not sure what behaviors are important until we begin observations
Without the controls of the laboratory, participants are free to do what they want to do, and not what we are hoping to observe
Naturalistic Observation
--Involves observing the natural flow of behavior in a natural setting
No effort to control the behavior
Behavior is described
--A flexible strategy
Allows the researcher to shift attention to behaviors that seem interesting
When to Use Naturalistic Observation/Low-Constraint Research
For questions involving the natural flow of behavior
When first studying a research area
When testing the feasibility of a procedure
As a way of discovering contingencies
When interested in a single individual
To test the generalizability of laboratory findings
Experimenter Reactivity
When the researcher/experimenter influences the subjects
Measurement Reactivity
When the subjects act different because they are being observed
Reactive Measures
Enhance Reactivity
Nonreactive Measures
Minimize reactivity
Sampling of situation
Individuals might act different in different situations

- Best to experiment with multiple situations

(Naturalistic Observations)
Sampling of Behavior
Might behave differently even in the same situation

- Best to experiment many times

(Naturalistic Observations)
Confound results only if:
1) Variable affects dependent v.
2) Variable varies in the 2 groups
Testing Research Hypothesis
Which three are we testing for?
- The null hypothesis
- The confounding variable hypo.
- The causal hypothesis
Types of Validity
- Statistical
- Construct
- External
- Internal
Statistical Validity
Are the statistical test correct? Were they correctly measured?
Construct Validity
Where you testing for what you were suppose to be testing for?

Or are there are explanations for your result? - bad
External Validity
Can this be applied to the general population? Did you have a good sample size/random
Internal Validity
Did the independent responsible for changes in dependent? Is it really causal?

- Can be affected by confounding variables
Threats to Validity
- Maturation
- Intrumentation Change
- Selection (groups must be equal in all aspects - time of day, gender, etc.)
Statistical Regression
Tendency for scores to be average on a re-take even if they do just as well.
Lose of study participants
Diffusion of Treatments
Change in behavior due to knowledge learned from others in study
Sequence Effects
Test sequence may affect subsequent scores
Testing effect
Testing the same individual over and over again may impact their scores
Try to pick up on clues as to how they SHOULD respond
Change in behavior once they know they are in a study
Demand Characteristics
Clues actually give to participants to "Tell" them how they should act

they way the question is worded; expression on researcher's face
Subject Roles
Good Subjects
Negative Subjects
Apprehensive Subjects
Faithful Subjects
Good subjects
do what they think the researcher wants
Bad subjects
does the opposite of what the researcher wants
Apprehensive subjects
behaves in a way that is socially acceptable
Faithful subject
Response sets
Predisposition to respond a certain way, no matter what the context of the question is
Random sampling
Every participant has an equal chance of being sampled
Stratified random sampling
Random sampling within strata (subgroups)
Ad hoc samples
Random sample from accessible population
-Must generalize cautiously
-Should describe sample to help define limits of generalization