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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Differentiate Between Nosocomial and Community Acquired? (P.771)
- Noscomial – Infection Acquired During Hospitalization
- Community Acquired – Infections Acquired in the Community
What Causes Pneumonia? (P.771)
- Infection of Lower Respiratory Tract
- Caused By Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protazoa, or Parasites
- Typically in Community Acquired Stretococcus Pneumonia (Too Many, See Page 772)
List Type of Organism that Causes TB? (P.773)
- Caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis An Acid-Fast Bacillus
- Individuals with AIDS are Highly Susceptible
Describe how TB is Transmitted from Person to Person? (P.774)
- Person to Person via Airborne Droplets
- Lodge in Lung Periphery (Upper Lobe)
- Once Inspired into Lung Cause Pneumonitis (Lung Inflammation)
Describe the Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Embolism? (P.775)
- Occulsion of Pulmonary Vascular Bed by Embolus Commonly Thrombi
- Tachypnea, Tachycardia, Dyspnea, & Anxiety
Describe the Probable Outcome of a Massive PE? (P.776)
- Shock, Hypotension, Tachypnea, Tachycardia, Severe Pulmonary Tension
What are Measures to Prevent Pulmonary embolism (P.776)
- Prevention through Risk Factor Analysis
- Prevent Venous Stasis By Leg Elevation & Pneumatic Calf Compression
- Prevented by Low Dose Anticoagulant Therapy
Differentiate between Cerebral and Brain Death? (P.363)
Cerebral Death:
- Irreversible Coma
- Death of Cerebrum
- Brain Can Maintain Homeostasis

Brain Death:
- Brain is Damaged so Completely it Cannot Recover
- Brain Cannot Maintain Homeostasis
- Irreversible Cessation of Entire Brain
Describe the Criteria for Brain Death? (P.363)
- State Laws Define: Irreversible Cessation of Function of Entire Brain
- Flat EEG for 6 to 12 Hours
Describe the Monroe-Kellie Doctrine and it’s Implications for ICP? (From Dave)
- Skull is a rigid compartment
- Made of: Brain, Blood, and CSF
- If One Component Increases without a Decrease in Atleast Another, ICP Goes Up
List the Term Used to Describe Infected Pleural Effusion? (P.760)
- Empyema
- Caused By Staphylococcus Aureus, E. Coli, Anaerobic Bacteria, Klebsiella Pneumoniae
What Chronic Lung Condition is Thought to be Caused by Interactions Between Genetic and Environmental Factors? (P.764)
- Asthma
What Life Threatening Condition is Characterized by Prolonged Bronchospasm and Hypoxemia? (P.766)
- Status Asthmaticus
What is the Chronic Lung Condition that Results in Increased and Thickened Mucous that Leads to Airway Closure? (P.768)
- Chronic Bronchitis
List Common Causes of Chronic Bronchitis? (P.768)
- Tobacco Smoke
- Air Pollution
What is the Underlying Pathophysiology of Emphysema that Results in Airway Obstruction? (P.770)
- Destruction of Alveolar Septa Which Eliminates Pulmonary Capillary Bed
- Loss of Normal Elastic Recoil of Bronchi
What Part of the Pathophysiology of Emphysema Causes the Barrel Chest (Increase in AP Chest Diameter)? (P.770)
- Mucus
- Air Trappings Cause Hyperexpansion Putting Respiration Muscles at Disadvantage
- Destruction of Alveolar Septum
Which is the Major Neurotransmitter Lacking in Parkinsons Disease. What are the Common Signs/Symptoms? (P.414)
- Degenerative Disease of Basal Ganglia
- Involves Failure of Dopaminergic Nigrostital Pathways
- Depletion of Dopamine & Excess Cholinergic Activity
Define: Orthopnea, Kussmauls, Cheyne Stokes, Hematemesis? (P.752)
- Orthopnea – Dyspnea when Lying Down. Body Water Puts Pressure on Diaphragm
- Kussmauls – Strenuous Exercise/Metabolic Acidosis; Large Tidal Volume No Pause
- Cheyne Stokes – Alternating Deep/Shallow Breathing; Impairment of Brain Stem with Low Blood Flow
- Hematemesis – Vomiting Of Blood; Dark Red Color
- Hemoptysis – Coughing of Blood; Bright Red Color
Describe the Heart Condition that may Manifest with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea? (P.752)
- Left Ventricular Failure
Describe the Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Edema? (P.756)
- Dyspnea
- Hypoxemia
- Increased Work of Breathing
Explain the Common Etiology of Aspiration Pneumonia? (P.757)
- Aspiration of Large Food Particles or Foreign Bodies
- Aspiration of Gastric Juices
- No Food/Water Before Surgery
- Nasogastric Tubes Can Cause Aspiration
Explain why a Spinal Cord Injury in the Cervical Region may be Life Threatening? (P.397)
- May Cause Impairment of Diaphragm Function (Phrenic Nerves C3-C5)
Explain the Cause, Signs/Symptoms of Autonomic Hyperreflexia? (P.400)
- Occurs After Spinal Shock Resolves
- Uncompensated Response to Cardiovascular Stimulation
- High Blood Pressure; Pounding Headache; Blurred Vision
List the Risk Factors for Thrombotic Strokes? (P.404)
- Atherosclerosis & Inflammatory Disease Process
Describe the Signs and Symptoms of a TIA (Differentiate with S/S of a CVA)? (P.404)
Transiet Ischemic Attacks:
- Platelets Clumps Causing Intermittent Blockage of Circulation
- Causes Neurologic Deficits, which clear in 24 Hours

Cerebrovascular Accident:
- Reached Maximum Destructiveness in Producing Neurologic Deficits
Describe the S/S of a Subarachnoid Hemorrhage? (P.407)
- Blood Escapes from Defective or Injured Vessel Into Subarchnoid Space
- Headaches, Changes in LOC, Nausea, Vomiting, Motor Deficits
- Tested by Kernig Sign and Brudzinski Sign
Describe the Early Signs/Symptoms of Alzheimers Disease? (P.413)
- Forgetfulness
- Emotional Upset
- Memory Loss
Differentiate between Thrombotic and Hemorrhagic Stroke and Associated Risk Factors? (P.405)
- Arteries Supplying Brain Occluded By Thrombi
- Increased Coagulation
- Inadequate Cerebral Profusion: Dehydration, Hypotension, Prolonged Vasoconstriction

- Ruptured Aneurysms or Vascular Malformations
- Risks Associated with Hypertension
- Bleeding Tumor, Head Trauma, Illicit Drug Use
Describe the Difference Between a Coup and Contrecoup Injury? (P.393)
- Coup Injury: Impact Against an Object
- Contrecoup Injry: Impact within the Skull
Describe the difference between Subdural and Epidural Hematoma
(Know Signs and Symptoms, Risk Factors)? (P.394)
- Subdural – Between Dura and Arachnoid Layers;

- Extradural (Epidural) – Artery is Most Common Source of Bleeding; Temporal Site is Most Common; Loss of Consciousness Followed By Alertness
Explain Why Basilar Skull Fractures are at Risk for Meningeal Infections? (P.396)
- Cannot Be Seen with X-Ray or CAT Scan.
- Look for Clinical Manifestations
Describe the Signs/Symptoms of a Mild Concussion? (P.395)
- Confusion
- Temporary Memory Loss