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40 Cards in this Set

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fates of FAs in the liver:
-storage as triglycerides
-Kreb's/TCA cycle and ATP production
-... production
-cholesterol synthesis
-lipoprotein synthesis
-release of free fatty acids in blood (you complex FAs with albumin)
ketone body
when you fast or starve, you increase ... and decrease ...
glucagon
insulin
3 primary responses we will see within 1st days of starvation:
-liver cells will break down ... into ... (first 24 hours)
-adipose tissue undergoes ... (breaking down fat) releasing free fatty acids into blood for fuel
-liver ... fatty acids and synthesizes ... to release into blood for fuel
glycogen
glucose
lypolysis
oxidizes
ketone bodies
ketogenesis:
... deficiency (or increased glucagon) --> mobilize ... from adipose --> increase fats to ... --> increased uptake and ... of fats --> increased production of ...
insulin
free fatty acids
liver
oxidation
ketone bodies
during longterm starvation, which energy substrate continues to increase over a matter of weeks?
ketone bodies
during longterm starvation, glucose levels drop at first, and then is maintained at a pretty constant level due to ... (liver making glucose from fatty acids)
gluconeogenesis
during long term starvation, free fatty acids show a slight increase and then ...
levels off
in the morning before breakfast, ... levels are at their highest, and ... are at their lowest
ketone
glucose
the body quickly shuts off ... production once glucose is introduced in the diet
ketone body
while we sleep, ketone bodies are produced and used for ...
fuel (energy)
ketone bodies:
-products of partial ... of fatty acids
-derived directly from ...
-used for ... by various tissues
beta-oxidation
acetyl CoA
energy
what are the 3 ketone bodies found in the bloodstream?
acetoacetic acid
3-hydroxybutanoic acid
acetone
ketogenesis:
-results from ... acetyl CoA production through fatty acid oxidation (TCA cycle can't keep up)
-occurs in ...
-ketone bodies provide fuel source for ... and ... muscle
-provide a fuel source for neurons in the brain once ... is completely depleted
excess
mitochondria
cardiac
skeletal
glucose
synthesis of ketone bodies occurs only in the ... and only when the production of acetyl CoA exceeds the capacity of the ... to oxidize it
liver
TCA cycle
during fasting, the TCA cycle has low levels of ..., which causes the cycle to slow down
oxaloacetate
which ketone body is blown off in lungs and makes a very characteristic smell (like over-ripe apples) when ketone is over produced?
acetone
what enzyme is absolutely necessary to use (breakdown) ketone bodies for energy?
succinyl CoA: acetoacetate CoA transferase
oxidation (reverse of synthesis) of ketone bodies:
-succinyl CoA:acetoacetate CoA transferase is an enzyme that is not expressed by ... cells, so ... make ketone bodies but can't use them
liver
hepatocytes
the acetyl CoAs formed from oxidation of ketone bodies enter the ... to produce ATP
TCA cycle
what kind of amino acids are these?
-leucine, isoleucine, lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine
ketogenic amino acids
ketogenic amino acids can be catabolized to what 3 things?
acetyl CoA
acetoacetyl CoA
acetoacetate
regulation of ketone body synthesis:
-anything that affects ... affects ketone body synthesis also.
-the difference is when ... of the TCA cycle is low, it stimulates the production of more ketone bodies
fatty acid oxidation
oxaloacetate
elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood can result from extended periods of ..., high -..., low-... diets, fasting, starvation, diabetes
exercise
fat
carb
during short-term fasting, plasma concentration of different factors change in order to try to spare the breakdown of ...
protein (muscle)
during sustained fasting, fatty acids begin to increase in blood 3-4 hours after a meal and progressively ... (with fasting) up to approximately 2-3 days before ... off
increase
leveling off
during sustained fasting, blood levels of ketone bodies begin to increase after about # hours, however, their levels continue to ... steadily over several days (10-20 days) before leveling off
4
rise
the brain prefers ... as its energy source
glucose
the brain cannot use ... as fuels because they cannot cross the blood-brain barrier
fatty acids
after 2-3 days of starvation, ketone body levels are high enough in the blood to enable them to enter cells of the ... and be utilized by ... (as opposed to glucose)
brain
neurons
ketone bodies may supply as much as ... of the energy requirement of the brain during starvation
2/3rds
ketone bodies can also serve as major substrates for the biosynthesis of neonatal ... and amino acids (building of myelin sheaths)
cerebral lipids
use of ketone bodies spares ..., which can be used as a source of amino acid precursors for gluconeogenesis (prevents ... wasting )
skeletal muscle protein
muscle
diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA):
-results from a reduced supply of cellular ... (due to low insulin) and a concomitant increase in fatty acid ... (due to high glucagon)

-ketone body production exceeds ability of peripheral tissue to ... them
glucose
oxidation

oxidize
diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA):
-ketone bodies are acidic (pKa ~ 3.5) and can lower blood pH ("..." pH < 7.35)
-can affect protein ... and ...
-can impair ability of ... to bind O2
acidosis
structure and function
hemoglobin
DKA:
-excess ... blown off during respiration
-gives a characteristic smell of "over-ripe apples"
-ketone bodies excreted in urine (...) - can also give urine a characteristic odor
acetone
ketonuria
ketonuria:
-levels of excess ketone bodies must be extremely ... to develop this
-can result from diabetes, fasting, dieting, starvation, and eating ...
high
disorders
early symptoms of DKA:
-extreme ...
-constant ...
-extreme weight loss
-lethargy
-... smell to breath
-agitation, irritation, aggression, confusion
-muscle wasting
thirst
urination
fruity
late symptoms of DKA:
-loss of ...
-extreme weakness, lethargy, and apathy
-... (vomiting)
-abdominal pain
-flu-like symptoms
-confusion
-unconsciousness and coma
appetite
emesis
Ketogenic diets (diets that increase the production of ketone bodies):

-used to prevent or reduce ... in people with epilepsy
-diet high in ...(88%) and low in ...(10%) and ...(2%)
-mimics starvation and raises levels of ketone bodies in blood
-mechanism unknown
seizures
fats
protein
carbohydrates
which of the following tissues does not use ketone bodies as a fuel source?
-heart
-liver
-skeletal muscle
-brain
liver