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34 Cards in this Set

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Describe lymph? What is it similar to in composition? Where does lymph become blood? What is lymph called where fats are absorbed?
LYMPH IS excess interstitial tissue fluid that passes into lymph capillaries and is similar in composition to blood plasma. If it was not removed and re-introduced into the cardiovascular system at the sub-clavian veins, it would produce edema and tissue damage. It is also where fats are absorbed by lacteals (lymph capillaries in the small intestines), the lymph is called chyle.
What is the function of the lymphatic system? Where is lymph reintroduced to cardiovascular system? What are the primary lymphoid organs?
helps to maintain tissue fluid balance by returning lymph to cardiovascular system through sub-clavian veins, transports fat and other substance absorbed by the digestive tract, and is part of the defense system. The primary lymphoid organs are the bone marrow and the thymus. The secondary lymphoid organs are the nodes and spleen.
How are lymph vessels similar to veins?
similar to the cardiovascular veins in that they have one way valves and lymph moves in them thru skeletal muscle contractions.
bacteria, virus, parasites, fungi, prion (degeneration of nervous system)
a virus is acellular, contains a protein coat called a _____may contain genomic DNA or RNA, and are obligate intracellular parasites
a PRION is an infectious particle that contains no ______.
What are antigens? Where can they be found? How are our cells identified as self?
are substances (NON-SELF PROTEINS or cells) that stimulate the ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY RESPONSE such as PRODUCTION of ANTIBODIES. These can be found on the surface of bacteria, pollen, and TRANSPLANT TISSUE.
Within every cell in our body is a protein, MHC I, that the immune system uses to identify our own cells as ____.
Give examples of the vertebrate defense mechanisms. What tissues act as a barrier to infection? What are some of the chemical barriers to pathogen entry?
innate immunity (non specific): barriers of skin (epithelial tissue) and mucous membranes (epithelial tissues that secrete lysozymes found in sweat, saliva, and tears), low pH of stomach, cells that ingest invading microbes, antimicrobial proteins (interferon, sebaceous gland secretions of oil), inflammatory and temperature response negative test of not finding self-markers; adaptive immunity (specific): positive test to recognize nonself-markers, specific antibodies
The two categories of immune defensive mechanisms are ____ and _____. Immunity is primarily based on the recognition of self, antigens, and foreign proteins. The innate immune system responds to molecules characteristic of invading organisms but not of human cells whereas the adaptive immune system responds to antigens which are usually foreign molecules but can also be molecules produced by human cells.
innate and adaptive

The innate immune system responds to molecules characteristic of invading organisms but not of human cells whereas the adaptive immune system responds to antigens which are usually foreign molecules but can also be molecules produced by human cells.
Nonspecific defenses include entry barriers, natural killer cells, proteins, and the inflammatory response with ______ cells.
phagocytic CELLS
Describe phagocytic cells such as macrophages. Macrophages are derived from what cells? What is significant about neutrophils? Where are these found?
large, irregularly shaped cells that kill bacteria by digesting them) such as neutrophils and macrophages are the FIRST cellular line of defense in the non-specific portion of the immune system.
NEUTROPHILS are the first to respond to INFLAMMATION and
MONOCYTES differentiate into MACROPHAGES which are found in BOTH infected and uninfected tissues.
Which cells are involved in specific immunity? What stimulates an increase in lymphocyte numbers?
Lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)
specific immunity cells that divide and increase in number when exposed to specific foreign substances (antigens).
Describe the inflammatory response. Which cells are first to respond? Mast cells release what? What phagocytes are drawn to the area? Histamine release leads to an increase in what? What is pus? What is the role of pyrogens? What acts as the pyrogen? What level of fever is dangerous?
Upon injury to tissue, this begins when HISTAMINE (inflammatory agent) is released by MAST cells (non-motile cells in connective tissue). This not only triggers VASODILATATION (increase in capillary PERMEABILITY leads to SWELLING, redness, heat in area),

it also attracts PHAGOCYTES (NEUTROPHILS AND PHAGOCYTES) to attack invading microbes by digesting them.

During local inflammation, surrounding TISSUES is LIQUIFIED creating PUS. Upon encountering invading cells, macrophages release INTERLEUKIN-1, a pyrogen carried to the hypothalamus which triggers a RAISE in the body's temperature.
This fever (systemic inflammation) stimulates phagocytosis, INCREASE the body's DEFENSES. But a fever above 105° can be FATAL.
Histamine, a chemical mediator, increases capillary permeability to proteins so that they leak into the interstitial fluid causing ______. It also stimulates constriction of bronchioles and vasodilation in small blood vessels. Most allergy medicines contain antihistamines that block the actions of histamine. These drugs reduce symptoms by directly blocking or reducing the INFLAMMATION response in mucous membranes.
Describe T-cells. Where are they produced? Where and how do they differentiate and mature? Which organ secretes thymosin? Antigen present cells (APC) consist of what cells? Which cells are most directly related to cell mediated immunity? What does helper T cells secrete and what does it do?
produced in bone marrow and then migrate to thymus gland where, as being overseen by inducer cells, are exposed to thymosin which promotes maturation and differentiation; are specific to specific antigen, but must encounter APC (dendritic cells and macrophages) to become activated; activation will produce helper t-cells, memory t-cells, natural killer cells (cell mediated immunity is a function of cytotoxic t-cells which directly lyse virally infected host cells); helper t-cells release cytokines (Interleukin-II) to help activate B-cells and cytotoxic T cells...65-85% of the lymphocytes in blood and almost all the lymphocytes in the lymph nodes are T-cells
An APC (antigen presenting cell) is a macrophage or dendritic cell that has phagocytised a pathogen and stripped it of its antigens, combined them with its own MHC proteins, and put an antigen-MHC complex on its surface. Upon encountering this complex, the t-cell becomes ______. Each organism has its own specific MHC proteins on the surface of their cells and these identify these cells as "self". Tissue transplants should have matching MHC molecules to prevent _____ in the host.
activated, rejection
Describe the complement system. What can it do upon activation? What does this achieve? Attachment to pathogen surface is similar to the function of what?
Complement system is made up of proteins (~20) circulating in the blood stream. Upon activation as part of the cellular defenses, they can promote inflammation by stimulating histamine release and/or phagocytosis by either forming an attack complex that inserts them into the foreign cell's plasma membrane, there by causing them to burst, or attaching to the surface of the pathogen (similar to antibody function), thereby attracting phagocytes to the site of infection.
What is the role of interferon? What produces interferon?
Protein produced by cells INFECTED by a VIRUS. This protein binds to the surface of neighboring cells, CAUSING THEM them to produce antiviral proteins to PROTECT THEMSELVES.
primary immune response
Initial response to pathogen detection; involves APC presentation of antigen-MHC complex, activation of specific t-cell, clonal expansion of t-cell producing helper t-cells, activation of b-cells through helper t-cell release of cytokines, b-cell clonal expansion producing plasma b-cells that produce antibodies...memory t-cells and memory b-cells are produced...this process is slow
Tissue transplants should have matching MHC molecules to prevent rejection in the host. MHC molecules represent______to the immune system cells.
Describe the secondary immune response. Which is faster, the secondary or primary?
prevents disease symptoms from occurring by causing B memory cells to rapidly divide forming plasma cells and producing more antibodies; faster and longer lasting than during the primary response.
What is the role of a vaccination? What is passive immunity?
ability to gain active immunity through exposure to non-virulent pathogens
Active immunity can be gained by experiencing a primary immune response through WHAT?, thereby combating future infections by inducing the production of memory cells.
exposure to an actual pathogen or thru a vaccination
PASSIVE immunity comes from receiving the transfer of active HUMORAL IMMUNITY in the form of readymade antibodies, from one individual to another. GIVE AN example
baby receiving colostrum from its mother.
Which lymphocytes are responsible for antibody mediated immunity? Describe their state as they are released from the red marrow. What is this effective against? What is the B-cell role in the primary immune response? What are antibodies called and what produces them? Why are they produced? What do they consist of? After first exposure to a pathogen, how long is the latent period? Are they specific or non-specific? What is involved in passive natural immunity?
involved in HUMORAL response; are released as MATURE, INACTIVE cells from RED marrow, are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity.

This is effective against bacteria, VIRUS, toxins, and extracellular antigens. The B-cells' role in the primary immune response is to PRODUCE MEMORY CELLS and to produce PLASMA CELLS that secrete antibodies SPECIFIC for foreign antigens. Antibodies are called GAMMA GLOBULINS or IMMUNOGLOBULIN and are produced by PLASMA B-cells as part of the immune response to the presence of NON-SELF molecules called ANTIBODIES.

Antibodies, consisting of circulating B receptors, are specific for a specific pathogen. A LATENT period of 5-10 days occurs before measurable amounts of specific antibodies appear in the blood after first exposure to a particular pathogen.

PASSIVE NATURAL IMMUNITY is when a person RECEIVES ANTIBODY produced outside of their own body. It only lasts as long as this process continues. (BREAST FEEDING of COLOSTRUM is an example)
The process of _______that occurs after exposure to a particular pathogen is necessary since only a small subset of B cells or T cells will have RECEPTORS TO BIND a particular pathogen and it is specifically these cells that are STIMULATED TO MULTIPLY to fight the infection.
clonal selection
What produce ANTIBODIES? What triggers the production of antibodies? What letter do they resemble? What area allows them to bind to a specific antigen, thereby determining its role in the immune response? What is their role in pathogen destruction?
specific proteins produced by PLASMA B-cells (specifically B receptors) in response to the presence of a specific antigen (nonself molecule).
They most closely resemble the letter Y.
The ability for an antibody to ATTACH to a specific pathogen's antigens (specificity) is determined by the VARIABLE REGION on its 2 arms that combine HEAVY chains and LIGHT chains.
Antibodies CIRCULATE and upon RECOGNITION, attach to the specific pathogen's antigens and MARKS the pathogen for DESTRUCTION.
Individuals suffering from acquired immune deficiency syndrome have DECREASING numbers of circulating HELPER T CELLS
It is the antigen molecule that elicits a specific immune response.
Antibodies (immunoglobulin)
Specific antibodies have specific roles..WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF IgM AND IgE
IgM bind to antigens on a cell and cause the aggregation of COMPLAMENT proteins to ultimately BURST the cell;
IgE have a role in the ALLERGIC RESPONSE
What are organisms that are capable of causing disease called?
A. symbionts
B. teratogens
C. carcinogens
D. mutagens
E. pathogens
Which of the following is not one of the functions of the lymphatic system?
A. take up excess tissue fluid, return it to the bloodstream
B. absorb fats in the intestines
C. help the body defend against disease
D. production, maintenance ,and distribution of lymphocytes
E. calcium homeostasis
One set of the body's defenses are called "innate." In this context, this means
A. they act indiscriminately against all pathogens.
B. they work very, very quickly.
C. they only act internally.
D. phagocytosis is involved.
E. they are lost as we age.