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87 Cards in this Set

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an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrasing
Freud's theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
contains a reservoir of unconsious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates amon the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather the pain
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflics were unresolved
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsiously swithes unacceptable impulses into their opposites. THus, people may express feelings that are the oppostive of thier anxiety -arousing unconscious feelings
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise thier own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
ex. "I don't trust him" could mean "I don't trust myself"
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptalbe or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
ex: angry at parents, kick family pet
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT_
a projective test in which people express thier inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces for our species history
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
personality inventory
a questionnaire (often true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), the test is now used for many other screening purposes
empirically derived test
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
social-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and thier social context
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignatoin an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self-serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identitiy in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
terror-management theory
proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
psychological disorder
a "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable
medical model
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these "mental" illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may included treatment in a psychiatric hospital
bio-psycho-social perspective
a contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psycholgical disorders
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. Presently distributed in an updated "text version" (DSM-IV-TR)
neurotic disorder
a psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially
psychotic disorder
a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions
anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
obsessive-compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
dissociative identity disorders
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder
personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or clever con artist
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
ex: major depressive disorder, manic episode, and bipolar disorder
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
manic episode
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (formerly called manic depressive disorder)
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
ecelectic approach
an approach to psychothereapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
sigmund freud's theraputic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences- and the therapists interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
client-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listenin within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients' growth
active listening
empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
behavior therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning
exposure therapies
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
systematic desensitizaiton
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat-phobias
aversive conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
token economy
an operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior. A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
cognitive-behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
a chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders
surgery that removes or destorys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain