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115 Cards in this Set

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________ ansewered the question; Where is heredity info stored in the cell?
Hammerling
Hammerling chose _________ for his experiment bcuz he needed cells ______ enough to operate on conviently and __________ enough to distinguish the peices.
Acetabularia;Large;Differentiated
So, Hammerling figured out that the _______ contains Heredity Info(1930)
Nucleaus
_____ and _____ tested Hammerlings hypothesis
Briggs; King
Each _______ in any eukaryotic cell contains a full set of _______ instructions
Nucleaus; Genetic
The ________ directs the development
Nucleaus
______ the units of heredity info
Genes
_______ contain protein and DNA
Chromosones
________ was a microbiologist who made observations while experimenting with pathogenic bacteria
Griffith
_______ did experiment with mice which he performed the _________ of _________.(1928)
Griffith;transformation;bacteria
_________ is the transfer of genetic material from one cell to another
Transformation
________ can alter the genetic makeup of the recipient cell
Transformation
________ Info can pass from dead cells to living ones,transforming them.
Heredity
Avery,MacLeod and McCarty characterized Griffiths experiment to what they referred to as the _________ _________.
Transforming Principle
Avery,MacLeod and McCarty figured out that the Transforming Principle resembled ____ in many ways
DNA
______,________,________: Transforming Substance is DNA (1944)
Avery,MacLeod nad McCarty
______ and ______ experimented with bacteriophages
Hershy and Chase
_________ are viruses that affect bacteria
Bacteriophages
Hershy and Chase used the bacteriophage ___ which contains DNA rather than RNA
T2
______ experiments demonstrate that ____ is Griffiths transforming material
Avery's;DNA
The Heredity material of bactriophages is ____ and not protein
DNA
_______ and ______: DNA is Heredity Material of Viruses(1952)
Hershy and Chase
_______ and _______:Structure of DNA (1953)
Watson and Crick
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
DNA is the Heredity Material of all kingdoms of _____ and most ________.
Life;Viruses
Meishers nuclein came to be called ______ ______.
Nucleic Acid
Biochemist,______ Found that a DNA molecule contains _________ units of the 3 main components
Levene;Repeating
_______: Discovered DNA(Nuclein) 1869
Meisher
The 3 main components of DNA and RNA molecules are...
Phosphate,Sugar and Nitrogenious Bases
Each unit consisting of a sugar attatched to a phosphate group and a base is called a ________.
Nucleotide
DNA is a ________ stable molecule(no2'-OH)
Chemically
The Phophate group is attatched to the __ ______ atom of a sugar and the base is attatched to the __ carbon atom.
Also, a free hydroxyl group,____, is attatched to the ___ Carbon atom
5' Carbon;1';-OH;3'
The 5' _______ and 3'______ groups allow DNA and RNA to form long chains of _________ becuz these 2 groups can react chemically with eachother
phosphate;hydroxyl;nucleotides
The reaction b/w the phosphate group and the hydroxyl group is a _______ _________,that links the 2 groups...This linkage is called a __________ bond
Dehydration Synthesis;Phosphodiester
Chargoffs Rules:1)The proportion of __(______) always equals that of ___(_______)and the proportion of ___(_______) always equals that of ___(_______)
2)It follows that there is always an equal proportion of _______(A and G) and _________(C and T)
A(adenine);T(thymine);G(guanine);C(cytosine)
Purines;Pyrmidines
A single strand of DNA or RNA consists of a series of ______ joined together in a long chain
nucleotides
_______ carried out an X-Ray diffraction analysis of DNA
Franklin
Watson and Crick:Each DNA molecule is actually made up of __ chains of nucleotides that are ________-----the ______ _______.
2;intertwined;Double Helix
The DNA strands are ____________
Complementry
Who revealed a regular pattern explained by antiparallel double helix?
Franklin
DNA has a ________ replication
semiconservative
Sequence of nucleotides encodes functional ____ or ________ (a Gene)
RNA;Polypeptide
Before discovery of DNA,regular distribution of _________ suggested that they contain heredity info
chromosones
_______/________ using Drosophils Melanogaster showed that genes are on chromosones(1910s)
Bridges/Morgan
Double stranded DNA always has the antiparallel configuration,with one strand running __ to __ and the other running __ to __
5' to 3';3'to 5'
_______ and ______ desighned the 3-D Structure of DNA in 1953
Watson and Crick
The double helix of polynucleotides are ________ and and have __ to __ phosphodiester bonds
antiparallel;3' to 5'
The base pairs are held by ________ ______.
AT=__ hydrogen bonds
GC=___ hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bonds;2;3
~__ bp per turn of helix
10
The DNA model provides access to DNA binding proteins regulating _______ structure and _____ expression
Chromatin;gene
The DNA Model has _______ power:_____ of DNA Replication and ______ of genetic info
Predictive;Mode;Encoding
The DNA replication is called __________ bcuz the sequence of the original duplex is conserved after one round of replication,the duplex itself is not.
Instead,each part of the duplex becomes part of another ______.
Semiconservative;duplex
Name 3 hypotheses of DNA Replication
Semiconservative,Conservative and Dispersed
The Melson and Stahl experiment showed that the DNA model was __________.
They used ___,which is ______ ________
Semiconservative;15N;Heavy Nitrogen
The Conservative Model consists of....
One double helix of both old strands and One double helix of 2 new strands
The dispersed Model...
Mixture of old and new DNA
Prokaryotes,EColi have __ DNA Polymerases
3
In Prokaryotes DNA Polymerase ___ is the main enzyme for DNA Replication
3
In Eukaryotes,there are ___ DNA Polymerases for Replication
6
All DNA Polymerases require a ______
primer
A ______ is a short stretch of DNA or RNA nucleotides hydrogen-bonded to its polynucleotide strand
Primer
DNA Polymerases can only _______ in one direction.
They extend strands in a __ to __ direction by copying a template that is __ to __
synthesize;5' to3';3' to 5'
The action of DNA Polymerases is to add new nucleotides to the __ ___ of a primer
3' OH
DNA Polymerases cannot remove nucleotides.
True/False
False, they can remove them and so are called nucleases
DNA Replication:2 Strands
Leading Strand:________ ________
Lagging Strand:_______ _________
Continuous Replication;Discontinuous Replication
The Lagging Strand has multiple _________ ________ and is joined by ____ ______
Okazaki fragments;DNA Ligase
_______:Synthesize RNA primer
Primase
DNA Polymerase 1, ______ primer and fills _____
removes;gaps
Helicase,Primase,Single stranded binding proteins,DNA Gyrase,DNA Polymerase 3 and DNA Polymerase 1 are all involved in the ___ _________ _______
DNA Replication Complex
In DNA Replication,new strands are oriented in _______ direction due to 5' to 3' constraint
opposite
Polynucleotide grows at the __ end
3'
All nucleotide addition is at ___ OH end of sugar
No exceptions to this rule
3'
Result in DNA Replication is __ to __ replication and this is common in all ____ and ____ and it also suggests a common _____
5';3';DNA;RNA;Origin
In DNA Replication, incoming _____ provide energy
dNTPs
DNA Primase is actually a ____ _______
RNA Polymerase
The enzyme responsible for opening up the helix in front of the polymerase is the DNA ______
Helicase
DNA _______ can employ the energy from the hydrolysis ATP to unwind ___ ______
Helicase;DNA Strands
An enzyme that can remove the torsional strain is ___ ______.This strain must be removed in order to ____ the DNA Helix
DNA Gyrase;Open
_____ ______,a form of topoisomerase is a group of enzymes that can alter the ________ state of DNA
DNA Gyrase;Topological
_____ ______ _______ ______ covers the exposed single strands when DNA is unwound
Single-Strand Binding Protein
DNA Polymerase __ removes primers with its 3' to 5' _______ activity and then replaces this with DNA
1;exonuclease
DNA is a ________ stable molecule(no2'-OH)
Chemically
In sugar, __ Carbon atoms with an _______ atom form a 5 membered ring.
The Carbon atoms are numbered __ to __ proceeding clockwise from the oxygen atom
4;Oxygen;1';5'
The 5' _______ and 3'______ groups allow DNA and RNA to form long chains of _________ becuz these 2 groups can react chemically with eachother
phosphate;hydroxyl;nucleotides
Linear strands of DNA an RNA, no matter how long will almost always have a free __ _______ group at one end and a __ ______ group at the other
5'Phosphate;3'Hydroxyl
Chargoffs rules in DNA:_______ amounts
__=___ and __=__
equimolar;A=T and G=C
The chemical structure of DNA contains Chargoffs rules and ________
5'-pGpTpCpGpTpApApTp-OH3'
Polynucleotides
Fanklin used DNA in the form of ______.
The info she obtained suggested that the DNA molecule had the shape of a _______ and a complete _______ turn
fibers;helix;helical
Watson and Crick:Each DNA molecule is actually made up of __ chains of nucleotides that are ________-----the ______ _______.
2;intertwined;Double Helix
Sequence of nucleotides encodes functional ____ or ________ (a Gene)
RNA;Polypeptide
Before discovery of DNA,regular distribution of _________ suggested that they contain heredity info
chromosones
_______/________ using Drosophils Melanogaster showed that genes are on chromosones(1910s)
Bridges/Morgan
Double stranded DNA always has the antiparallel configuration,with one strand running __ to __ and the other running __ to __
5' to 3';3'to 5'
The DNA strands have bases extending into the _______ of the _____.
The bases from opposite strands form _____ _____ with eachother to join the 2 complentry strands
interior;helix;base pairs
Watson and Cricks famous paper appeared on ______ ___,_____ in the journal _______.
April 25,1953;Nature
The double helix of polynucleotides are ________ and and have __ to __ phosphodiester bonds
antiparallel;3' to 5'
The base pairs are held by ________ ______.
AT=__ hydrogen bonds
GC=___ hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bonds;2;3
The DNA model provides access to DNA binding proteins regulating _______ structure and _____ expression
Chromatin;gene
The DNA Model has _______ power:_____ of DNA Replication and ______ of genetic info
Predictive;Mode;Encoding
____ _______ creates a phosphodiester bond b/w adjacent Okazaki Fragments
DNA Ligase
The _______ _____ is the site of opening of the DNA strands where active replication occurs
Replication Fork
DNA Polymerase ___ is thought to function during DNA _____ and not during replication
2;repair
The Polymerase found at the replication fork is polymerase __
3
The ______ is a macromolecular protein machine that accomplishes the fast and accurate replication of DNA during cell division
Replisome
DNA Replication starts at the _____(ORI)and proceeds ________.When this happens the forks move _____ from eachother and each fork has _______ and ________ strands
Origin;bidirectionally;away;leading;lagging
The main replication polymerase in eukaryotes is called DNA polymerase _____
Alpha
Eukaryotic chromosones have ______ origins of replication
multiple
The biggest difference b/w eukaryotic and prokaryotic replication is the sheer amount of ___ and how it is ________
DNA;Packaged
______: Inherited Disorders Can Involve Specific Enzymes
Garrod
______: Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Garrod
______ concluded that patients suffering from ________ lack the enzyme that is necessary----enzyme diffciency
Garrod;Alkaptonuria
Beadle and Tatum conducted a genetic and biochemical analysis in _______
Neurospora
Beadle and Tatum came up with the hypothesis ___-____/___-_____
one-gene/one-enzyme
Beadle and Tatum concluded that genes produce their effects by specifying the structure of ______ and that each _____ encodes the structure of 1 enzyme
enzymes;gene
Today,_____ is a sequence of nucleotides encoding functional ___ molecule or the _____ _____ sequence of a polypeptide
DNA;RNA;Amino Acid