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97 Cards in this Set

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The product of fermentation of natural sugars. It is generally referred to simply as alcohol, though several types of nonethyl alcohol exist.
Ethyl alcohol
The process of converting natural sugars into ethyl alcohol by the action of yeasts.
The process of producing beer from barley grain
Barley after it has been soaked in water, sprouts have grown, sprouts have been removed, and the mixture has been dried and crushed to a powder.
Barley malt
Fermented barley malt, following liquification and combination with yeasts.
A process by which fermented liquid is boiled then cooled, so that the condensed product contains a higher alcoholic concentration than before.
The liquid product of distillation, also known as liquor.
distilled spirits
A brandy, the first distilled liquor in recorded history.
aqua vitae
The social movement in the United States, beginning in the nineteenth century, that advocated the renunciation of alcohol consumption.
Temperance movement
A chemical process in alcohol metabolism
An enzyme in the stomach and liver that converts alcohol into acetaldehyde.
Alcohol dehydrogenase
A by-product of alcohol metabolism, produced through the action of alcohol dehydrogenase.
An enzyme in the liver that converts acetaldehyde to acetic acid in alcohol metabolism.
acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
A by-product of alcohol metabolism, produced through the action of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.
Acetic acid
The number of grams of alcohol in the blood relative to 100 milliliters of blood, expressed as a percentage.
Blood-alcohol concentration (BAC)
A hormone that acts to reabsorb water in the kidneys prior to excretion from the body.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
A condition resulting from excessive reabsorption of water in the kidneys.
Nonethyl alcohols, oils, and other organic substance found in trace amounts in some distilled spirits.
Amnesia concerning events occurring during the period of alcoholic intoxication, even though consciousness had been maintained at that time.
An experimental design that can separate psychological effects (due to subjective expectations) and physiological effects (due to the pharmacology of the drug).
balanced placebo design
A condition in which the consumption of alcohol has produced major psychological, physical, social, or occupational problems.
A pattern of alcohol consumption aimed at reducing stress and anxiety.
symptomatic drinking
The complete avoidance of some consumable item or behavior.
Individuals whose behavior consciously or unconsciously encourages another person's continuation in a pattern of alcohol or other drug abuse.
A syndrome characterized primarily by the continued use of alcohol despite the drinkers knowledge of having a persistent physical problem or some social or occupational difficulty.
Alcohol abuse
A syndrome in which alcohol abuse involves a variety of significant physical, psychological, social, and behavioral problems.
Alcohol dependence
The more common of two general reactions to the cessation of alcohol consumption in an alcoholic. It is characterized by physiological discomfort, seizures, and sleep disturbances.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome
The less common of two general reactions to the cessation of drinking in an alcoholic. It is characterized by extreme disorientation and confusion, fever, hallucinations, and other symptoms.
Delirium tremens (DTs)
A condition in which fat deposits accumulate in the liver as a result of chronic alcohol abuse.
Fatty liver
A disease involving inflammation of the liver as a result of chronic alcohol abuse.
Alcoholoic hepatitis
A disease involving scarring and deterioration of liver cells as a result of chronic alcohol abuse.
Alcoholic cirrhosis
A condition in which chronic alcohol abuse produces cognitive deficits such as difficulties in problem solving and memory.
Alcoholic dementia
A condition resulting from chronic alcohol consumption, characterized by disorientation, cognitive deficits, amnesia, and motor difficulty.
The tendency to make up elaborate past histories to cover the fact that long-term memory has been impaired.
Thiamine Confabulation
A serious condition involving mental retardation and facial-cranial malformations in the offspring of an alcoholic mother.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Capable of producing specific birth defects.
A cognitive deficiency in the offspring of an alcoholic mother. It is considered less serious than fetal alcohol syndrome.
Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAE)
A way of understanding a phenomenon in terms of complex interacting relationships among individuals, family, friends, and community.
Systems approach
A concept that individuals who live with a person having an alcohol (or other drug) dependence suffer themselves from difficulties of self-image and social independence.
Individuals who grew up in a family with either one or two alcoholic parents.
Children of alcoholics (COAs)
The likelihood that one member of a twin or family relation will have a condition if the other one has it.
Concordance rate
A medication that causes severe physical reactions and discomfort when combined with alcohol. Brand name is Antabuse.
A long-lasting opiate antagonist, available since 1994 for the treatment of alcoholism. Brand name is ReVia.
A long-lasting opiate antagonist, similar to naltrexone, currently in development for the treatment of alcoholism.
A worldwide organization devoted to the treatment of alcoholism through self-help groups and adherence to its principles.
Alcoholics Anonymous
An alcoholism and other drug-abuse treatment program emphasizing a nonspiritual philosphy and a greater sense of personal control in the abuser.
Rational Recovery (RR)
Corporate or institutional programs for workers or employees to help them with alcohol or other drug-abuse problems.
employee assistance programs (EAPs)
A quantity of finely shredded or powdered tobacco. Modern forms are available in either dry or moist forms.
the ingestion of snuff either by inhalation or absorption through tissue in the nose.
Tightly rolled quantities of dried tobacco leaves.
Rolls of shredded tobacco wrapped in paper, today usually fitted at the mouth end with a filter.
Tobacco smoke that is inhaled by nonsmokers from the burning cigarettes of nearby smokers. Also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke.
Sidestream smoke
Tobacco smoke in the atmosphere as a result of burning cigarettes; also called sidestream or secondary smoke.
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
The smoke inhaled directly from cigarettes or other tobacco products.
Mainstream Smoke
The components of smoke that consist of particles.
Particulate phase
A sticky material found in the particulate phase of tobacco smoke and other pollutants in the air.
The portion of tobacco smoke that consists of gases.
Gaseous phase
An extremely toxic gas that prevents blood cells from carrying oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
Carbon Monoxide
Small hair cells
The process of pushing back foreign particles that might interfere with breathing upward from the air passages into the throat, where they can be swallowed and excreted through the gastrointestinal tract.
Ciliary escalator
The prime psychoactive drug in tobacco products.
The idea that smokers will adjust their smoking of cigarettes so as to maintain a steady input of nicotine into the body.
Titration hypothesis
Disease that damages the heart as a result of a restriction of blood flow through coronary arteries.
Coronary heart disease (CHD)
A disease in which blood flow is restricted because the walls of arteries harden and lose their elasticity.
A disease in which blood flow is restricted because of the buildup of fatty deposits inside arteries.
A group of diseases characterized by impaired breathing due to an abnormality in the air passages.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A respiratory disease involving inflammation of bronchial tissue following a buildup of excess mucus in air passages.
Chronic Bronchitis
An enlargement of air sacs in the lungs and abnormalities in the air sac walls, causing great difficulty in breathing.
Cancerous tumors or growths
Small white spots inside the mouth and nasal cavity, indicating precacerous tissue.
Small red spots inside the mouth and nasal cavity, indicating precancerous tissue.
A group of carcinogenic compounds found in tobacco.
Damp, finely shredded tobacco, typically placed against the gum under the lower lip.
Moist snuff
A xanthine stimulant found in coffee, tea, chocolate, soft drinks, and several medications.
A family of CNS stimulant drugs that includes caffeine, theophylline, and theorbromine.
A xanthine stimulant found in chocolate.
A type of coffee bean native to the Middle East but now grown principally in South America. It is typically referred to simply as arabica.
Coffea arabica
a type of coffee bean grown principallly in Indonesia, Brazil, and Africa.
Coffea Robusta
The plant from which tea leaves are obtained.
Camellia sinensis
Parts of the cacao tree that are the raw material for cocoa and chocolate. Not to be confused with coca, the source of cocaine.
Cocoa bean pods
The fat content of the cocoa bean
cocoa butter
A deep-colored paste made when roasted cocoa beans are heated so that the cocoa butter in the beans melts.
Chocolate liquor
A hardened paste, consisting of chocolate liquor, produced by heating roasted cocoa beans.
baking chocolate
An inhibitory neurotransmitter that is blocked, or neutralized, by caffeine and other xanthines. The action on adenosine receptors in the body is the basis for the stimulant properties of these drugs.
An analgesic gas commonly used in modern dentistry. It is also referred to as laughing gas.
Nitrous oxide
Small canisters containing pressurized nitrous oxide
A deficiency in oxygen intake.
An anesthetic drug, first introduced to surgical practice by William T. Morton in the 1840s. It is highly flammable.
A chemical found in nail polish removers and other products.
A carcinogenic (cancer-producing) compound found in many solvent products, representing a serious health risk when inhaled.
A dangerous compound present in many glues and adhesive products. Inhalation of these products has been associated with muscular weakness and atrophy.
A compound in glues, cements, and other adhesive products. Inhalation of these products results in behavioral and neurological impairments.
A gasoline additive. Inhalation of TCP-containing gasoline has been linked to spastic muscle disorders and liver problems.
Triorthocresyl phosphate
An additive in Testor brand hobby-kit glues that produces nasal irritation when inhaled, thus reducing the potential for inhalant abuse.
oil of mustard
An inhalant drug that relaxes smooth muscle and produces euphoria. Clinically useful in treating angina pain in cardiac patients, it is also subject to abuse.
amyl nitrite
An inhalant drug, similar in its effects to amyl nitrite. It is commonly abused as it induces feelings of euphoria.
Butyl nitrite
A form of cancer affecting the immune system and associated with AIDS
Kaposi's sarcoma