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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The spaces between the unfused cranial bones in early infancy
Fibrous Sutures
Joints between the bones of the skull.
Pia Mater
Innermost covering of the Meninges.
Middle covering in the Meninges.
Dura Mater
The outermost covering of the Meninges.
An infection of the meninges.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
A clear fluid contianing glucose, proteins, minerals and other substances.
A blockage within the ventricles of the brain which results in the CSF accumulating within the ventricles.
The Circle Of Willis
Area where the four main arteries of the brain interconnect.
Internal Jugular Vein
Main vein exiting the cranium.
Wide and flat veins within the brain.
Cerebral Vascular Accident
Disrupted blood flow to part of the brain causing neurons to die.
Endocrine System
Synthesizes and secretes hormones which regulate activities throughout the body.
Cerebral Cortex
Outer surface of the cerbrum that is composed of gray matter.
Gray Matter
Nervous tissue that has a grayish color because its contents are not myelinated.
White Matter
Part of the neuron that is myelinated.
Ridges between the sulci.
Shallow indentations or grooves between the Gyri.
Deep grooves.
Longitudinal Fissure
Separates the right and left cerbral hemispheres.
Lateral Sulcus
Separates the temporal lobe and the parietal lobe of the cerebrum.
Central Sulcus
Separates the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe of the cerebrum.
Parieto-Occipital Sulcus
Separates parietal lobe from the occipital lobe.
Corpus Callosum
Large bundle of myelinated commissural neurons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum.
Internal Capsule
Myelinated axons connecting the cerebrum with the rest of the brain.
Voluntary movements
Opposite side of the body.
Basal Ganglia
Areas of gray matter in the "basement" of the brain.
Gyrus arranged in a specific patter.
Expressive Aphasia
Unable to get thoughts into words.
Precentral Gyrus
The gyrus immediately anterior to the central sulcus.
Postcentral Gyrus
The gyrus immediately posterior to the central sulcus.
Visual Aphasia
Difficulty with recognition of written words.
Receptive Aphasia
Unable to translate speech into thoughts.
Foramen Magnum
Exit of the cranium for the spinal cord.
Cauda Equina
Bundle of nerves at the inferior end of the spinal cord.
Intervertebral Foramen
Exit point for nerves in the spinal column.
Dorsal Horn
Region of gray matter in central region of spinal cord controlling sensory.
Ventral Horn
Region of gray matter in central region of spinal cord controling motor.
Lateral Horn
Region of gray matter in central region of spinal cord controlling autonomic motor.
Axons that carry the same specific type of information and all run together.
One process and one axon joined together near a cell body leading to and from the cell.
Ventral Root
Contains the axons of all efferent neurons that are exiting the spinal cord at that level.
Spinal Nerve
Formed by the union of the dorsal roots and the ventral roots as they go through the intervertebral foramen.
Anterolateral Spinothalamic Tract
Carries sensory information from the spinal cord to the thalamus and cerebrum.
Phantom Sensation
After amputation the patient occasionally reports sensations coming from the now amputated limb.
Fasciculus Gracilis
Carries information from the lower half of the body
Fasciculus Cuneatus
Carries information from the upper half of the body.
Anterolateral Corticospinal Tract
Carries motor information from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord.
Connective tissue that covers the individual motor and sensory fibers.
Connective tissue that covers a fascicle of fibers
Group or bundle of fibers.
Connective tissue that covers the entire spinal nerve.
Dorsal Primary Ramus
Supplies the muscles and skin of the back.
Ventral Primary Ramus
Supplies the muscles and skin of the extremities and the lateral and anterior trunk.
A braiding of the spinal nerves which allows the fibers of one spinal nerve to mix with fibers of another spinal nerve.
Peripheral Nerves
Nerves exiting the plexus. Named according to location or destination.
A delineated area of skin innervated by a spinal nerve.
Nerve Field
Area of skin innervated by a single peripheral nerve.
A fast, predictable, anatomical response to changes in the enviroment that helps to maintain homeostasis.
Sensory Receptor
Initiates a nerve impulse or action potential.
Afferent Neuron
Transmits the nerve impulse through a peripheral nerve to the central nervous system where it synapses.
Integrating Center
Relays the impulse to the motor neuron. Synapse with the spinal cord.
Efferent Neuron
Delivers the nerve impulse to an effector via the spinal nerve and peripheral nerve.
Muscle or gland, responds to the efferent neuron impulses.
Reflex when a sensory neuron synapses with the motor neuron
Reflex when a sensory neuron synapses with an interneuron which synapses with a motor neuron.
Somatic Spinal Reflexes
Reflexes that result in the contraction of skeletal muscles.
Visceral Spinal Reflexes
Reflexes that cause the contraction of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or the secretion by glands.
Law of Reciprocal Innervation
A reflex which when a muscle is stimulated to contract, causes inhibition of the opposing muscle.
Primitive Reflex
A reflex that is present at some stage of a normal full-term baby's post-natal life and in time disappears or becomes modified.
Pathological Reflex
Primitive Reflex that continues to be present or re-presents itself following an injury
Pacinian Corpuscle
Pressure receptor.
Upper Motor Neuron Lesions
Damage to the anterolateral corticospinal tract's upper motor neuron which lies in the brain and spinal cord.
Increased muscle stretch reflex.
Lower Motor Neuron Lesions
Damge to the anterolateral corticospinal tract's lower motor neuron which lies in the spinal cord and periphery.
Neural Process
Axon/dendrite involved in transmission of impulses away from/toward the cell body.
Membrane of the axon.
Cell membrane or sheath of the schwann cell in the PNS only.
Mildest degree of nerve injury.
Intermediate degree of nerve injury.
Severe degree of nerve injury.
Cell body swells as it produces more nissl body organelles which will assist in neural growth.
Wallerian Degeneration
Neural process and myelin distal to injury site break up into little particles.
Retrograd Degeneration
Neural process and myelin distal and proximal to injury site degenerates into little particles.
Young Old
Majority of older people, who are those who, regardless of their actual age, are vital, vigorous, and active.
Old Old
The frail, infirmed minority.
Oldest Old
Fastest growing segment of the U.S. population.
The period of the life span marked by changes in physical functioning associated with aging.
Gerontological Society Motto
To add life to years, not just years to life.
Programmed Aging Theory
In each species, the body ages according to a normal developmental pattern built into every organism.
Aging as Wear and Tear Theory
The body ages because of continuous use that deterioration is the result of accumulated "insults"
Reserve Capacity
The backup capacity to function in times of stress.
Fluid Intelligence
The ability to call on resources to solve new problems is considered by some to be at the heart of intelligence.
Crystallized Intelligence
Type of learning that depends on learning, life experience, and professional expertise to remain either constant or actually increase in later years.
Sensory Memory
Your brain records whatever you see, hear, smell, taste, or touch and places it in temporary storage in the sensory memory area.
Short-Term Memory
Information is stored for about 20 seconds.
Long-Term Memory
Long Term Storage of information.
Accepting the life on has lived, without major regrets over what could have been done differently.
Emotional Health
Determined by closeness to siblings at college age and the ability to handle life problems without blame, bitterness, or passivity
Disengagement Theory
Sees aging as a process of mutual withdrawl. It is normal, universal and necessary for successful aging for older people to cut down their activities and commitments, while society encourages this by pressuring people to retire.
Activity Theory
The more active older people remain, the better they age.
Biological Aspect of Death
The cessation of bodily processes
Social Aspect of Death
Revolve around the funeral and mourning rituals and legal arrangements for the inheritance of power and wealth.
Psychological Aspect of Death
Inolve the way people feel about their own deaths and the deaths of those close to them.
The objective fact of loss, the survivor's change in status.
The behavior of the bereaved and the community after a death.
The emotional response of the bereaved.
Anticipatory Grief
Involves symptoms of grief that are experienced while the individual is still alive.
A situation is so novel or so major that the person's established strategies are inadequate to restore the balance.
Degree of integration of personality.
Taking out one's feelings on someone or something other than the person/object that stimulated the feelings.
Unconscious pulling back from involvement with people.
An attitude held by others, as well as by the disabled person himself, of lowered self esteem.
Due to devaluation, the patient and/or others begin to view the patient as more severely disabled than he really is.
Gregor Effect
Rejection and avoidance of certain patients.