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131 Cards in this Set

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Macule
small, flat, discolored spot, up to 1 cm; freckles, petechia, roseola
Patch
flat, discolored spot, 1 cm or more; freckles, petechia
Papule
elevated nevus up to 1 cm; prickly heat, psoriasis, eczema
Plaque
elevated superficial 1 cm or more; coalescence of papules
Nodule
marble-like, deep and firm, greater than 0.5 cm
Wheal
irregular skin edema; mosquito bite, hives
Vesicle
up to 1 cm, filled with serous fluid; herpes simplex
Bulla
1 cm or more with serous fluid; second degree burn
Pustule
filled with pus; acne or impetigo
Erosion
loss of superficial epidermis, moist, no bleeding; after vesicle erupts, chicken pox, ulcer of venous insufficiency, syphilitic chancre
Ulcer
loss of epidermis and dermis, may bleed and scar; bed sores, diabetic
Scale
thin flake of exfoliated epidermis; psoriasis, dandruff, dry skin
Fissure
linear crack in skin; athlete's foot
Nevi
round, flat to elevated; mole
Lichenification
thickening and roughening of skin, increased visibility of skin furrows; atopic dermatitis
Atrophy
thinning of skin, shiny and transluscent; arterial insufficiency
Excoriation
abrasion or scratch
Comedo
blackhead (open or closed)
Telangiectasis
dilated small red or blue vessels; hereditary, spider veins
Urticaria
swollen, raised, extremely itchy areas of skin; allergy, hives, angioedema
Keloid
firm, nodular, hypertrophic mass of scar tissue; site of injury or incision
Jaundice
yellow staining of skin due to high levels of billirubin; gall stones, tumors, hepatitis B
Carotenemia
carotene in the blood characterized by yellowing of the skin; lack of yellow discoloration of the conjunctivae; high intake of carotene
Acrocyanosis
cyanosis of the extremities; vasomotor disturbances
Cyanosis
slightly bluish color of the skin; abnormal amts of reduced hgb in the blood; may not appear in pts with severe anemia because not enough reduced hgb present to cause the blue color to be visible; deficiency of oxygen or excess of carbon dioxide
Circumoral Cyanosis
cyanosis encircling the mouth
Pallor
lack of color, paleness; anemia
Purpura
hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs and other tissues; red to purple to brownish-yellow and disappearing in 2-3 weeks; areas of discoloration do not disappear under pressure; allergies, idiopathic thrombocytopenia
Petechia
small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin that appear in certain severe fevers and are indicative of great prostration, as in typhus; abnormality of blood-clotting mechanism; red spots from bite of flea
Ecchmosis
large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic areas; blue-black to greenish brown or yellow; bruising
cafe-au-lait spot
pale brown areas of increased melanin in the skin with irregular borders; appear in infancy and tend to disappear with age; neurofibromatosis
Herald patch
a lolitary oval patch of scaly skin that appears days before the general eruption of pityriasis rosea; may be mistaken for tinea corpis
Target lesion
lesion with 3 zones of color; dark center surrounded by zone of lighter color that is rimmed with thin area of erythema; usually on alms and soles; diagnotic leion of erythema
hot tub folliculitis
inflammation of follicle or follicles caused by staphylococci and usually affects males; permanent loss of hair in affected area
tinea versicolor
fungal infection of skin producing branny patches that are yellow or fawn-colored
vitiligo
milk-white patches, surrounded by areas of normal pigmentation; tropics and blacks; cause unknown
alopecia
loss of hair, especially on head; etiol: physiologic changes as a part of the aging process; effects of serious illness; drugs; endocrine disorders; certain forms of dermatitis; hereditary factors; radiation
paronychia
acute or chronic infection of marginal structures about the nail; trauma and infection
onycholysis
loosening or detachment of the nail from the nailbed
Terry's nails
mostly whittish with distal band of reddish brown; assoc with aging & chronic disease(cirrhosis, CHF, NIDDM)
leukonychia
white spots or streaks on the nails; trauma
Mee's lines
transverse white lines that appear above the lunula of the fingernails about 5 weeks after exposure to arsenic or acute/severe illness
Beau's lines
white depressed lines across the fingernails, usually a sign of systemic disease; trauma, coronary occlusion, hypercalcemia, skin disease
clubbing
lateral and longitudinal curvature of the nails accompanied by soft tissue enlargement, presenting a bulbous, shiny appearance; lung diseases, infective endocarditis, steatorrhea and occasionally familial
spooning or koilonychias
nails that are thin and concave with raised edges; assoc with iron-deficiency anemia
cafe-au-lait spot
pale brown areas of increased melanin in the skin with irregular borders; appear in infancy and tend to disappear with age; neurofibromatosis
Herald patch
a lolitary oval patch of scaly skin that appears days before the general eruption of pityriasis rosea; may be mistaken for tinea corpis
Target lesion
lesion with 3 zones of color; dark center surrounded by zone of lighter color that is rimmed with thin area of erythema; usually on alms and soles; diagnotic leion of erythema
hot tub folliculitis
inflammation of follicle or follicles caused by staphylococci and usually affects males; permanent loss of hair in affected area
tinea versicolor
fungal infection of skin producing branny patches that are yellow or fawn-colored
vitiligo
milk-white patches, surrounded by areas of normal pigmentation; tropics and blacks; cause unknown
alopecia
loss of hair, especially on head; etiol: physiologic changes as a part of the aging process; effects of serious illness; drugs; endocrine disorders; certain forms of dermatitis; hereditary factors; radiation
paronychia
acute or chronic infection of marginal structures about the nail; trauma and infection
onycholysis
loosening or detachment of the nail from the nailbed
Terry's nails
mostly whittish with distal band of reddish brown; assoc with aging & chronic disease(cirrhosis, CHF, NIDDM)
leukonychia
white spots or streaks on the nails; trauma
Mee's lines
transverse white lines that appear above the lunula of the fingernails about 5 weeks after exposure to arsenic or acute/severe illness
Beau's lines
white depressed lines across the fingernails, usually a sign of systemic disease; trauma, coronary occlusion, hypercalcemia, skin disease
clubbing
lateral and longitudinal curvature of the nails accompanied by soft tissue enlargement, presenting a bulbous, shiny appearance; lung diseases, infective endocarditis, steatorrhea and occasionally familial
spooning or koilonychias
nails that are thin and concave with raised edges; assoc with iron-deficiency anemia
Lindsay's nails
half and half nails; proximal 1/2 white and distal darker; assoc with chronic renal failure
Tzank test
examination of tissue from the lower surface of a lesion in vesicular disease to determine the cell type; take fluid out of lesion; assoc with vericella, herpes zoster, pemphis vulgaris
presbyopia
defect of vision in advancing age involving loss of accommodation or recession of near point
presbycusis
impairment of hearing in old age
scotomas
island like blind gap in the visual field; lesion of macula, looking at sun in eclipse, absence of rods and cones, mental or physical labor, eyestrain, migraine
hyperopia
farsightedness
myopia
nearsightedness
diplopia
double vision; disease of eyeball, cranal nerve affections, disease of cerebellum, cerebrum and mininges
amblyopia
reduction or dimness of vision; paralysis of opposite side of the face; irritation of peripheral area; effects of alcohol, tobacco, lead, drugs or other toxic substances; uremic attack
miosis
abnormal contraction of pupil; irritation of oculomotor system or paralysis of dilators; fevers; congestion of iris in typhus, early stages of meningitis and some drug poisonings; brain lesions and sun stroke
mydriasis
pronounced or abnormal dilation of pupils; fright, sudden emotion, 1st & 3rd stages of anesthesia; drugs, coma, hysteria, botulism or irritation of cervical sympathetic nerve
anisocoria
inequality in the size of the pupils;congenital, aneurysms, head trauma, diseases of nervous system, brain lesion, paresis or locomotor ataxia
exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball; thyrotoxicosis, tumor of the orbit, orbital cellulitis, leukemia or aneurysm
blue sclera
abnormal degree of blueness of the sclera; osteogenesis imperfecta
cotton-wool patches
white or gray, ovoid lesions with irregular borders, usually smaller than the disc; the appearance of the retina from infarcted nerve fibers; hypertension
drusen
small, hyaline, globular pathological growths formed on optic papilla or on Descemet's membrane; yellowish round spots that vary from tiny to small, edges may be hard or soft; normal aging or macular degeneration
Horner's syndrome
contraction of the pupil, partial ptosis of the eyelid, enophthalmos and sometimes loss of sweating of the affected side of the face; due to paralysis of the cervical sympathetic nerve trunk
Argyll Robertson upils
present in paralysis and locomotor ataxia (due to syphillis); light reflex is absent but there is no change in the contraction of the pupil during accommodation
Adie's pupils
a syndrome characterized by tonic pupil that responds slowly or not at all to light; accompanied by slow constriction and relaxation in the change from near to distant vision and impaired accommodation; affected pupil is frequently larger that the normal pupil, deep tendon reflexes often decreased
Reiter syndrome
consisting of urethritis, arthritis, and conjunctivitis; occurs mainly in young men; chlamydia most frequently associated
strabismus
disorder of the eye in chich optic axes cannot be directed to the same object; hereditary, imbalance in ocular muscle tone; paralysis of one or more extraocular muscles
cover-uncover test
reveals a slight or latent muscle imbalance not otherwise seen
nystagmus
constant, involuntary, cyclical movement of the eyeball; movement in any direction; congenital, seen in bilateral amblyopia, miners and train dispatchers; labyrinthine irritability, neuro diseases
retinoblastoma
malignant glioma of the retina; occurs in young children and shows a hereditary pattern; initial diagnostic finding is usually a yellow or white light reflex seen at the pupil (cat's eye reflex)
hemianopsia
blindness for half the field of vision in one or both eyes;lesions of the nervous system regulating vision
homonymous hemianopsia
blindness of nasal half of the visual field of one eye and temporal half of the other, or right=sided or left=sided hemianopsia of corresponding sides of both eyes;
conductive hearing loss
hearing loss through bone; problems in the external or middle ear
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss through sensory nerve; problems in the inner ear, cochlear nerve or its central connections in the brain
tinnitus
ringing in ears; can accompany hearing loss and vertigo (Menier's disease; asa toxicity
Meniere's disease
recurrent and usually progressive group of sx including progressive deafness, ringing in ears, dizziness and sensation of fullness or pressure in the ears
vertigo
feeling of moving around in space; middle ear disease; toxic conditions such as those caused by ASA, alcohol or streptomycin; sunstroke, postural hypotension or toxemia due to food poisoning or infectious disease
raccoon eyes
periorbital ecchymosis; may be present in pts who have a basilar skull fracture
Battle's sign
bogginess of the temporal or postaruicular resion of the head; indicates fracture of the basilar area of the skull
Stellwag's sign
widening of palpebral aperature with absence or lessened frequency of winking; seen in Grave's disease
rhinorrhea
watery discharge from nose; viral, allergies; cerebrospinal: defect in or trauma to cribriform plate; gustatory: occurs while one is eating
epistaxis
bloody nose; local infections, systemic infections; dry nasal mucous membrane; trauma, arteriosclerosis, hypertension and bleeding tendencies
goiter
an enlargement of the thyroid gland;lack of iodine in diet, thyroiditis, inflammation from infection, tumors or hyperfunction or hypofunction of the thyroid gland
cataracts
opacity of lens of the eye or its capsule or both; aging process, congenital, infection, injury, exposure to radiation, adrenal cortical hormones taken for long periods, UV rad, diabetes, cigarette smoking
macular degeneration
degeneration of the macular area of the retina of the eye; cause unknown
glaucoma
group of eye diseases characterized by increase in intraocular pressure, which results in atrophy of the optic nerve and may result in blindness; cup-to-disc ratio is hich; cup > 50% of disc is suspicious; 70% strongly suggests; etiol: failure of removal of aqueous humor from the eye at a rate to keep up with its production in the anterior chamber or if this is normal cause is unknown
narrow angle glaucoma
caused by a shallow anterior chamber and thus a narrow filtration angle through which the aqueous humor normally passes; medical emergency: sudden onset of pain in eye, pupil unreactive and mid dilated size
open angle glaucoma
any form of glaucoma in which the filtration angle is normal; non-acute & most common ; effects peripheral vision first
hirsutism
excessive growth of hair or the presence of hair in unusual places, esp in women; abnormalities of androgen production or metabolism
blepharitis
ulcerative or nonulcerative inflammation of the edges of the eyelids involving hair follicles and glands that open onto the surfaces; ulcerative: staph infection; nonulcerative: unknown or allergy
ptosis
dropping or drooping of an organ or part, as the upper eyelid from paralysis
ectropion
eversion of an edge or margin of an eyelid; old age, relaxation of skin; cicatrix following trauma; infection; palsy of facial nerve
entropion
inversion of an edge or margin of an eyelid; scar tissue on the inner surface of the lid; spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscles
pinguecula
yellow thickening or bulbar conjunctiva, triangular in shape, on inner and outer margins of the cornea; aging
sty(hordeolum)
a localized circumscribed inflammatory swelling of one or several sebaceous glands of the eyelid; bacterial infection
chalazion
small, hard tumor analogous to sebaceous cyst developing on the eyelids
episcleritis
inflammation of the subconjunctival layers of the sclera
dacryotcystitis
inflammation of the tear sac involving mucous membrane of the lacrimal sac with submucous membrane, which later extends to connective tissue, surrounding it with resulting cellulites; usually secondary to prolonged obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct
xanthelasma
flat or slightly raised yellowish tumor occurring in elderly persons, found most frequently on the upper an lower lids; may occur with lipid disorders or independently
pterygium
triangular thickening of bubar conjunctiva extending from inner canthus to border of the cornea with apex toward pupil
exostoses
bony growth that arises from the surface of a bone, often involvoing the ossification of muscular attachments; in the ear canal, nonmalignant growths obscuring view of the tm
aphthous ulcer (canker sore)
solitary or multiple ulcers of the oral cavity that tend to recur; certain foods, fever or mental stress
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums characterized by redness, swelling and tendency to bleed; improper dental hygiene, poorly fitting dentures; mouth and upper resp inf.; scurvy, blood dyscrasias or metallic poisoning
torus palatinus
rounded elevation or swelling; a begign exostosis located in the midline of the hard palate
cheilitis
inflammation of the lip; nutritional deficiency, excessive exposure to sunlight
Vincent stomatitis
ulcerative inflammation of the mouth (tongue)
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
polyps of the small intestine and melanin pigmentation of the lips, mucosa, fingers and toes; anemia due to bleeding from the intestinal polyps is a common finding; inherited disorder
Fordyce spots
enlarged ectopic sebaceous glands in the mucosa of the mouth and genitals; appear as small yellow spots, called Fordyce's spots; asymptomatic and present in the majority of people
Hutchinson's teeth
congenitall; pegged, lateral incisors and notched central incisors along the cutting edge; sign of congenital syphilis
hairy tongue
tongue covered with hairlike papillae entangled with treads produced by the fungus Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans; usually seen as the result of antibiotic therapy that inhibits growth of bacterial normally present in the mouth
geographic tongue
numerous denuded patches on dorsal surface coalescing into free-form shapes similar to geographic presentation maps; cause unknown
strawberry tongue
peculiar red, papillated tongue characteristic of scarlatina (scarlet fever)
leukoplakia
formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue or cheek; lesions may become malignant
tori mandibulares
rounded bony protuberances that grow from the inner surfaces of the mandible, bilateral and asymptomatic
Grave's disease
exophthalmic goiter; hyperthyroidism
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
inflammation of thyroid; transient hyperthyroidism; seen in some pts receiving interferon-alpha, interferon-beta, and interleukin-2
myxedema
condition resulting from hypofunction of the thyroid gland; mucous swelling