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88 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of a sensory receptor?
Initiates a nerve impulse or action potential
What is the function of a afferent neuron?
Transmits the nerve impulse through a peripheral nerve to the central nervous system where it synapses.
What is the function of a integrating center?
Synapse with the spinal cord, relays the impulse to the motor neuron.
What is the function of a efferent neuron?
Delivers the nerve impulse to an effector via the spinal nerve and peripheral nerve.
What is the function of a effector?
Muscle or gland, responds to the efferent neuron impulses.
What is the main characteristic of a reflex?
They are always involuntary.
What causes a reflex?
Always occur because of a sensory stimulus. The response produced by the reflex is stereotyped.
What is the basic function of a reflex?
Protection, maintain muscle tone, and allows body to maintain homeostasis.
What are somatic spinal reflexes?
Reflexes that result in the contraction of skeletal muscles.
What are Visceral spinal reflexes?
Reflexes that cause the contraction of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or the secretion by glands.
What type of reflex is a visceral reflex?
Autonomic
What is the receptor for the Muscle stretch reflex?
Muscle spindle
What is the stimulus for the muscle stretch reflex?
Change in length of muscle. Slight stretching of a muscle stimulates the sensory ending in the muscle spindles.
What is the response of the muscle stretch reflex?
Causes the stretched muscle to contract.
What is the ipsilateral reflex arc of a muscle stretch reflex?
The sensory impulse enters the spinal cord on the same sie that the motor impulse leaves the spinal cord.
What is the monosynaptic reflex of the muscle stretch reflex?
The sensory neron synapses with the motor neuron within the spinal cord directly.
What is the purpose of the muscle stretch reflex?
Maintains muscle tone and protects the muscles from overstretching.
How is muscle stretch relfex used clinically?
To check for neurological damage.
What is an example of muscle stretch reflex?
Patellar tendon reflex. When patellar ligament is tapped. Muscle spindles in quadriceps femoris muscle send sensory impulse to spinal cord. Cause muslce to contract and leg extension at knee.
What is the receptor for the gamma reflex loop?
Muscle spindle.
What is the stimulus for the gamma reflex loop?
Change in length of the muscle.
What is the response to the gamma reflex loop?
Continuous partial skeletal muscle contraction for postural muscle tone.
What type of reflex/reflex arc is the gamma reflex loop?
Ipsilateral/Polysynaptic
What is the purpose of the gamma reflex loop?
Length monitoring system/postural tone.
What is an example of gamma reflex loop?
When muscles in the back of the neck are in tonic contraction, they hold the head in the anatomical position and preven it from slumping forward, but not enough force to pull the head back into hyperextension.
What kind of neurons does the muscle stretch reflex use?
Alpha motor neurons.
What kind of neurons does the gamma reflex loop use?
Gamma motor neurons.
What is the receptor for flexor reflex?
Free nerve endings.
What is the stimulus for flexo reflex?
Pain
What is the response of flexo reflex?
Withdrawl (flexion) of stimulated extremity.
What type of reflex, reflex arc is a flexor reflex?
Ipsilateral/Polysynaptic
What is the purpose of the flexor reflex?
Protects the body from painful stimuli.
What is the clinical use for flexor reflex?
Can be used in paralyzed patients to stimulate flexion patterns.
What is the receptor for crossed extension reflex?
Free nerve ending.
What is the stimulus for crossed extension reflex?
Pain
What is the response of crossed extension reflex?
Withdrawl (flexion) of stimulated extremity and extension of the contralateral extremity.
What is the type of reflex/reflex arc of a crossed extension reflex?
Part ipsilateral / part contralateral, and polysynaptic
What is the purpse of crossed extension reflex?
Protection of the threated side while maintenance of posture on the contralateral side.
What is the law of reciprocal innervation?
A reflex which when a muscle is stimulated to contract (agonist), causes inhibition of the opposing muscle (antagonist)
What does (-) mean for law of reciprocal innervation?
Means inhibition of activity.
What does (+) mean for law of reciprocal innervation?
Mean enhancement of activity.
What is another name for Extensor Thrust Reflex?
Positive Support
When does Extensor Thrust reflex become abnormal?
After 6 months of age.
What is the stimulus of extensor thrust reflex?
Pressure receptors (pacinian corpuscles) on the bottom of the foot are stimulated.
What is the response of extensor thrust reflex?
The lower extremity extensor skeletal muscles are activated causing the hip, knee, and ankle to extend.
What are the functions of extensor thrust reflex?
Aids in maintaining the standing position.
What is the clinical aspects of extensor thrust reflex?
Can be used to stimulate extensor patterns in patients with a neurological disorder for both the upper and lower extremities.
When does asymmetric tonic neck reflex become abnormal?
After 6 months of age.
What is the stimulus for asymmetric tonic neck reflex?
Proprioception receptors of the neck are stimulated with neck rotation.
What is the response of asymmetric tonic neck reflex?
Extension of the arm and leg on the side to which the face is turned, and flexion of the arm and leg on the contralateral side.
What is the function of the asymmetric tonic neck reflex?
Child developmental testing / neurological testing.
What is the pathological reflex of extensor thrust reflex?
Impairs gait - during weight bearing the LE goes into an extension pattern offsetting balance and the normal gait pattern.
What is the pathological reflex of asymmetric tonic neck reflex?
Interferes with the development of symmetry and independent movements of the trunk and limbs. Interferes with rolling from supine to prone.
When does symmetric tonic neck reflex become abnormal?
After 6 months of age.
What is the stimulus of symmetric tonic neck reflex?
Proprioception receptors are stimulated with neck extension or flexion.
What is the response of symmetric tonic neck reflex?
With neck extension, the upper extremities extend and lower extremities flex. With neck flexion, the upper extremities flex and the lower extremities extend.
What is the pathological effects of symmetric tonic neck reflex?
Interferes with independent movement of the head and extremities.
When does babinski sign become abnormal?
Past 1 year of age.
What is the stimulus for babinski sign?
Touch receptors stimulated on the lateral aspect and plantar surface of the foot over the metatarsal heads.
What is the response of babinski sign?
Extension of the first toe with or without fanning of the other toes (positive babinski sign)
What is the function of babinski sign?
Child developmental testing and neurological testing of LE
When does hoffman's sign become abnormal?
Abnormal past 1 year.
What is the stimulus for hoffman's sign?
Flicking the distal phalanx of the third digit.
What is the response of hoffman's sign?
Clawing movement of the fingers to the thumb (positive hoffman sign).
What is the function of hoffman's sign?
Child development testing / neurological testing of UE.
When does superficial abdominal reflex become abnormal?
This reflex does not go away.
What is the stimulus for superficial abdominal reflex?
Light touch around the umbilicus unilaterally stimulates the touch receptors.
What is the response of superficial abdominal reflex?
The umbilicus deviates slightly to the side stroked.
What is the function of superficial abdominal reflex?
Neurological testing of the trunk region.
What are upper motor neuron lesions?
Damage to the anterolateral coricospinal tract's upper motor neuron which lies in the brain and spinal cord.
Where can the damage from upper motor neuron lesions be found?
Damage can be to the cell bodies in the precentral gyrus or to the descending internuncial axons in the internal capsule, brainstem, or spinal cord.
If damage to anterolateral corticospinal tract is above the medulla, where would the effects present themselves?
Characteristics of an UMN lesion will be seen on the contralateral side of the body.
If damage to anterolateral corticospinal tract is below the medulla, where would the effects present themselves?
Characteristics of an UMN lesion will be seen on the ipsilateral side of the body.
What are the common causes of upper motor neuron lesions?
CVA, head trauma, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis
What kind of lesion presents as spastic paralyses?
UMN lesion
What kind of lesion presents as increased muscle tone?
UMN lesion.
What kind of lesion presents as increased muscle stretch reflex (hyperreflexia)?
UMN lesion.
What kind of lesion results in pathological reflexes present?
UMN lesion.
What kind of lesion presents as muscle wasting secondary to disuse atrophy?
UMN lesion.
Where does the lower motor neuron lie?
IIn the spinal cord and periphery.
What can cause lower motor neuron lesions?
Damage to spinal nerve, peripheral nerve, synapse of the neuron with the skeletal muscle, and/or cell bodies within the anterior (ventral) horn.
Where do lower motor neuron lesions present themselves?
Ipsilaterally.
What are the common causes of lower motor neuron lesions?
Herniated disc, peripheral nerve injury.
What kind of lesion presents as flaccid paralyses?
LMN lesion.
What kind of lesion presents as decreased muscle tone?
LMN lesion.
What kind of lesion presents as no muscle stretch reflex?
LMN lesion.
What kind of lesion presents as absense of pathological reflexes?
LMN lesion.
What kind of lesion presents as muscle wasting secondary to neurogenic atrophy?
LMN lesion.