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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the aspects of health?
Feelings of well being, vitality, vigorous puruit of life goals.
What are the aspects of illness?
Feeling of helplessness, dependenc, continuous discomfort, narrowing of focus of attention, increased concern for somatic stimuli, constriction of goals.
What are the aspects of physical illness or disability being crisis producing?
usually cant be anticipated, very limited information available, need for making definitive decisions quickly, uncertainty of long range effects, typically limited experience coping with health crisis.
What are the stages of patient reaction to physical disability?
Shock, denial, anger, depression, adaptation.
How are socio-demographic and personal factors affect by age?
Stage of development affect perception of illness.
How does being an adolescent affect socio-demographic and personal factors?
Becoming dependent by a disability at a time when normal issues of independence and self-sufficiency are occuring.
How does being middle-aged affect socio-demographic and personal factors?
Middle aged patient may find long term goals and life patterns disrupted.
How are socio-demographic and personal factors affect by gender?
Issues of loss of physical prowess and disruption of body image.
How are socio-demographic and personal factors affect by socioeconomic status?
Issues of role as provider, real life problems of money to pay for extensive medical care.
How are socio-demographic and personal factors affect by emotional/ego strength and self-esteem?
How person sees self in terms of ability to handle crisis and cope effectively.
How are socio-demographic and personal factors affect by philosphical/religious beliefs?
Illness as "will of god" or punishment for past misdeeds.
How are socio-demographic and personal factors affect by previous illness and coping experiences?
What skill patient has already developed in response to past crises and how effectively they use those skills.
How are illness related factors affected by type and location of symptoms.
Pain, disfigurement, and body region given special imprtance.
How are illness related factors affected by degree of disability/loss.
Same injury/illness can result in different degree of disability or loss depending upon patient's perception.
How are physical and social-environmental factor affected by living conditions?
Can be real-life issues (no access for wheel chairs).
How is physical and social-environmental factors affected by quality of relationships/support system?
Family, friends, social skills in establishing new supports.
What is cognitive appraisal?
How the patient view the disability is more important than the realities of the problem.
How do emotional systems affect patient?
Degree of integration of personality, use of defense mechanisms to cope, general coping ability, potential to use/accept external emotional support.
What is the circular process of emotional arousal and illness?
Illness and disability have the effect of increasing somatic preoccupation which in turn sensitizes the individual to painful stimuli. The experience or anticipation of pain leads to increased emotional arousal which interferes with adaptation and learning.
What is the major adaptive task of dealing with pain, incapacitation, and other symptoms?
Includes total or potential loss of function, paralysis and disfigurement.
What is the major adaptive task of dealing with the hospital enviroment and special treatment procedures?
For O.T./P.T. - excercises, prosthetics, and treatment regiments.
What is the major adaptive task of developing and maintaining adequate relationships with health care staff.
Receive care and get needs met.
What is the major adaptive task of preserving a reasonable emotional balance?
Includes dealing with threatening information, emotional ups and downs, maintaining hope.
What is the major adaptive task of preserving a satisfactory self image and maintaining a sense of competency and mastery?
May involve increased efforts at independence to overcome sense of dependency on others. May be maladaptive.
What is the major adaptive task of preparing for an uncertain future.
Part of what makes an illness or disability so emotionally distressing is the unpredictability of its course.
Of the major types of coping skills, what is denying or minimizing the seriousness of the crisis?
Denial can be healthy in that it allows a patient time to assemble adequate resources for dealing with the crisis, can be unhealthy/maladaptive if patient fails to take necessary action because of it.
Of the major types of coping skills, what is seeking information about illness/disability, treatment procedures, and probable outcome?
Help alleviate a sense of helplessness caused by uncertainty or misconceptions.
Of the major types of coping skills, what is learning specific illness related procedures?
Confirmation of personal ability and effectiveness at time when chances for independent, meaningful actions are few. Provides a chance for support people to contribute concretely to patient's recovery.
Of the major types of coping skills, what is maintaining regular routines and setting concrete, limited goals.
Progressive desensitization of patients with disfigurements. Breaking up what appears to be insurmountable problems into small manageable pieces.
Of the major types of coping skills, what is managing self-presentation and being able to request needed support and rassurance?
Asking for help versus assuming a passive-dependent role. Support groups.
Of the major types of coping skills, what is preparing oneself mentally and rehearsing potential outcomes?
Often combined with information seeking. Thinking through steps involved and anticipating possible demands, self-talk to ease fears and bolster confidence. Anticipatory mourning of possible future lose.
Of the major types of coping skills, what is finding a general purpose or meaning in coure of events?
Belief in divine purpose o situation. Normalizing event, as reult of series of preceding processes. Put experience in a long term prespective.
What is caregiver's plight?
aversion to patients, false optimism, anxiety, emotional over reactivity.
What are some recommendations for staff coping?
Constructive denial, derive satisfaction from handling difficult job, humor, accept feelings of temporary depression, anxiet, anger as natural human reactions, peer support group.