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193 Cards in this Set

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egg yolks coagulate at what temp?
150-160
What affects egg coagulation?
ARPSLAS

Amount of egg
rate of cooking
part of egg
sugar
lipids
acid
starch
Name the functions of eggs.
SELSM FNC

Structure
emulsifier
shortening
moisture
flavor
nutrition
color
also shine, glue
creaminess in frozen desserts
name the 2 kinds of dessert puddings
starch thickened

baked
what are 3 bases for chiffon?
starch thickened

egg thickened

thickened with both

Example: Lemon chiffon pie
which pie dough is best for cream pies?
mealy
what gives chiffon pie its texture?
adding beaten egg whites and/or whipped cream

fruit based has gelatin
what are cream pies similar to?
pudding and pastry cream

made with CORNSTARCH
tips for cooking soft pies . . .
start in bottom of oven

450 for 10 minutes to set crust

reduce to 325 (avoid overcoagulation)
custards such as pumpkin and pecan are made with what to cook them?
uncooked liquid containing eggs

eggs coagulate during baking
how does the Old-Fashioned Method for pie filling work?
mix sugar, starch and spices together

add fruit

fill shells

add butter

cover with top or streusel
how does the cooked fruit method for pie fillings work?
everything cooked together

then thickened with starch
what is the cooked juice method?
gel is made separately, then mixed with the fruit
what is a fruit filling?
solid fruit bound by a gel
when should you add sugar or acids like lemon juice to a filling?
after you've added the starch or they will affect thickening
to avoid lumping in your slurry, how should you mix it?
mix starches with cold liquid or sugar before adding to hot liquid.
why is cornstarch used for cream pies?
sets a firm gel that holds shape when sliced
bake custards at what temp to avoid overcoagulation or curdling?
325
what determines firmness in a custard?
amount of eggs
what are the basic custard ingredients?
eggs, milk, sugar, flavorings
what are baked puddings?
custards that contain additional ingredients like bread or rice in large quantities
panna cotta is an example of what type of dessert?
gelatin pudding
cream puddings are the same as what other dessert?
pastry cream

Example: coconut, chocolate, butterscotch
blancmange is an example of what type of dessert?
cornstarch pudding of milk, sugar, cornstarch, flavorings
rangetop puddings are thickened with what?
cornstarch
what is the difference between cornstarch puddings and cream puddings?
cream puddings include eggs
what is pastry cream?
a stirred custard with starch as well as eggs for thickening
Can pastry cream be heated over 185?
yes because of starch
what is another name for vanilla custard sauce?
creme anglaise

both are stirred custards
what are the 2 basic kinds of custards?
stirred - remains pourable

baked - sets firm
what is a liquid thickened or set by coagulation of egg proteins called?
custard
what makes it more difficult for proteins to aggregate when they are heated?
fats and emulsifiers
To avoid curdling, what can you add?
sugar
sugar helps to slow the formation of what?
egg structure
gluten structure
starch structure
Chef gives you these ingredients:

eggs, milk or cream, sugar, flavoring

What does he want you to make?
custard
what causes egg custards to be thickened?
coagulation of protein from a heat source
creme caramel, creme brulee and creme anglaise are examples of what?
custards
pumpkin pie, bread pudding, quiches and cheesecakes can be lumped together as what?
variations of custard
as eggs are heated, what happens?
proteins in whites and yolks denature or unfold
what do unfolded proteins do?
move through liquid and aggregate
aggregated proteins form what?
strong, flexible network that traps water and other liquids
what happens in curdling?
proteins overcoagulate
what is weeping or syneresis?
the result of curdling
what else can coagulate proteins?
acid
salt
freezing
drying
whipping
how is temperature affected when coagulation is slowed down?
it has to be increased to bring about coagulation
why does adding milk, sugar or cream make it harder to coagulate?
proteins have more trouble bumping into each other and bonding

dilution is a way to reduce risk of overcoagulation
if eggs coagulate too quickly, what happens?
they're less likely to thicken and gel
egg yolk proteins, being lipoproteins, make it more difficult for what to happen?
aggregation
what does sugar slow down?
egg protein coagulation by preventing proteins from unfolding
if proteins are slow to unfold, they will be slow to do what?
coagulate
what is tempering?
careful addition of one ingredient to another when 2 ingredients start at different temperatures
what is the goal of tempering?
to avoid damaging either ingredient
adding sugar to dilute eggs is another way to do what?
protect eggs from effects of heat
lipids affect egg coagulation how?
they tenderize the proteins by coating them, which slows down coagulation
acid does what to coagulation?
speeds it up and lowers the temperature at which it happens
how do starches increase the temperature of egg coagulation?
they slow the process - think of boiling pastry cream beyond 185
what are the 2 key roles of eggs?
structure

thickening/gelling
thickening and gelling occur when as temp is increased?
over time
sugar is classified as a what?

eggs are classified as what?
tenderizer

toughener
how do eggs assist in leavening?
through aeration
sponge, genoise, chiffon and angel food cake get their leavening help from what?
eggs
why are eggs added to creamed butter?
to help stabilize and emulsify the mixture
if eggs are added too fast to a cream mixture or too cold, what happens?
emulsion breaks
what happens in cake if you replace whole eggs with egg yolks?
the cake will taste richer but will be drier and crumblier due to the tenderizers in the yolk. yolks are also lower in moisture.
acid does what to egg coagulation?
speeds it up and lowers temp of coagulation
starch does what to egg coagulation
increases temp
what 2 things happen when eggs are whipped?
air bubbles are beaten in

egg proteins denature, moving through liquid to surface of bubbles and forming a filmy network known as foam
eggs give structure in what types of breads?
quick breads
loaf breads
muffins
cookies
yeast breads
coagulated egg proteins provide what for pastry cream, cream pies, cream anglaise and custards?
thickening and gelling
what are the 2 dough mixtures for quick breads?
soft doughs for biscuits

poured or drop batters
aspects of mealy pie dough . . .
fat is worked in to coarse cornmeal.

crust is very short and tender, good for bottoms

less water is needed

baked dough won't get soggy
aspects of flaky pie dough . . .
fat particle size larger than for mealy pie dough (hazelnut size pieces)

top crust dough, unbaked pie shells
why keep pie dough cool - 60 degrees - during mixing and makeup
to deter gluten development

shortening has the best plasticity when cool; too warm and it's hard to mix in, too cold and it won't mix in at all
why is water necessary in pie dough?
you need some gluten development.

too much water toughens dough

too little and the crust will fall apart due to inadequate structure
why is butter avoided in pie dough?
expensive

melts too easily compared to shortening, making dough difficult to work
what is the most popular fat for pie crusts?
regular hydrogenated shortening
what is the best flour choice for pie dough?
pastry - enough gluten for desired structure but low enough in gluten to give a tender product
what are the 3 mixing methods for quick breads?
biscuit

muffin

creaming
the biscuit method for quick breads is also known as the what?
pastry method
what's the danger in the muffin method for quick breads?
overmixing
what is the creaming method for quick breads good for?
formulas high in fat and sugar

when you want to blend uniformly without overmixing
describe the creaming method for quick breads
combine fat, sugar, salt, spices, milk powder

cream until light

add eggs in stages

sift dry ingredients together

add alternately with wet ingredients, with dry ingredients going first
blanchir means what?
to lighten an egg product by whipping
what's the procedure in the biscuit mixing method?
mix dry ingredients

cut in fat to desired size

add liquid

gather into a ball, fold over a few times

allow to rest a minimum of 10 minutes
what happens to sugar as it cooks?
water evaporates

sugar becomes more concentrated

temperature rises
temps of thread stage

soft ball stage
230

235 - fudge pralines
firm ball stage temps

hard ball stage
245 - caramels

250 - marshmallows, gummies
soft crack

hard crack temp stages
270 - taffy

300 - highest in candy making recipes

toffee, nut brittles
caramelized sugar is said to be in what stage?
brown liquid stage
When sugar is light amber in color, what temperature is it at?
320
At 320, what is the concentration of sugar in a sugar syrup?
100%
At what temp does brown liquid in sugar syrup appear?
338, caramelization
burnt sugar stage is at what temp?
350 - the state of bitterness setting in
once you start boiling sugar, you can't do what to it anymore?
agitate it
sugar and salt do what to temperature in a mixture?
lower it
at what point do you add acid such as lemon juice to a sugar syrup?
at full rolling boil
Other acids you can add to boiling sugar are . . .
cream of tartar or an invert syrup
examples of invert syrups . . .
honey
molasses
sorghum
maple syrup
corn syrup
glucose
what's the issue with using an invert in cooked sugar syrup?
the product takes on the flavor of an invert
why is it better NOT to use bitter caramel on flan?
it brings out the sulphuric taste in eggs
what is another name for flaky pie dough?
short flake
when water is added to fat and flour in a flaky pie dough, what happens?
flour absorbs the water water and some gluten develops.

when rolled out, fat lumps and moistened flour become flakes of dough separated by layers of fat
what are the benefits of a more complete coating of flour, such as in mealy pie dough?
crust is very short and tender

less water is needed

dough less likely to absorb filling and get soggy
which pie dough is used for prebaked shells?
flaky
what can you do with the trimmings and scraps from pie dough?
Mix it with mealy pie dough for use on the bottom.
why is hand mixing best for small batches of dough?
you have more control over mixing
what are crumb crusts used for?
unbaked pies such as cream pies and chiffon

also cheesecake
when starting pie doughs, what should ingredients be?
cold

water, butter or shortening
how do you make pie dough?
mix flour, salt, sugar by hand

cut in shortening to size needed

add ice water

press together, don't knead

let rest 4-6 hours
a tip for working mealy pie dough into a finer mixture . . .
once at "hazelnut" size of particle fat, rub fat back and forth between hands
name the different types of fillings
CCOCCC

cooked fruit
cooked juice
old-fashioned
cream
chiffon
custard
starch can get overcooked when acid is present. What's the solution?
reduce cooking time

increase amount of starch

add acid after starch mixture has gelatinized and cooled

use an acid-resistant starch such as root or waxy rice
root or waxy rice is an example of what?
an acid-resistant starch
brown sugar contains what, so when used with baking soda provides what?
acid

leavening
flakiness refers to what?
number of layers in a baked, laminated product
to keep layers distinct, the chunks of fat should be . . .
large
what is fraisage?
kneading fat and flour with the heel of the hand until thoroughly blended
French pie crust is called what?
pate brisee
pate brisee means what?
broken crust, or short crust
addition of carbon dioxide in a batter does what for doughs?
makes them thicker and easier to mix
bench tolerance is affected by what?
the leavener used
amount of water in a recipe affects what?
toughness or tenderness
heated sugar molecules form what?
polymers that absorb light.

bitter polymers have been heated too long
how does sugar assist in leavening?
there is air between sugar crystals

only dry sugars can assist this way. there is no air in syrups
what does a small amount of lemon juice do for syrups high in sugar?
helps prevent darkening and crystallization by "inverting"
a small amount of baking soda increases pH, which helps with what?
browning
buttermilk lowers pH, which does what?
slows browning
what does leavening do for products?
tenderizes them by making the cell walls thinner as they are stretched

finished product is easier to chew
tenderness can be adjusted how?
by adding an acid like fruit juice to lower the pH beyond the 5-6 slightly acid range, or adding an alkali like baking soda to raise the pH above the range
what is coagulation?
firming or hardening of gluten proteins, or egg proteins, via heat
cream of tartar and other acids help prevent . . .
crystallization

browning, by lowering pH
3 main ways fats assist in leavening . . .
creaming - adding tiny air cells

they contain their own trapped air

they help proteins trap air when mixed
what do you get, the more fat is worked into flour before water is added?
tenderness
ability of lipids to provide flakiness depends on . . .
solidity of fat

melting point

piece size
baking soda is . . .
a chemical leavener that when combined with acid in a box becomes baking powder

baking soda is alkaline and raises pH
the most common leavener is . . .
baking soda
functions of chemical leaveners . . .
to tenderize

to leaven

adjust pH
a small amount of baking soda increases pH and weakens gluten. The result is . . .

A small amount of cream of tartar decreases pH and weakens gluten. The result is . . .
tenderness with browning

tenderness with a whiter crumb
baking powder is . . .
a chemical leavener where the acid and the soda are combined in the same box
baking soda becomes carbon dioxide and other gases in the presence of what?
acid

moisture
working with baking soda you need . . .
acid and moisture
why is baking powder "sad"?
stands for soda and acid
whole eggs coagulate at what temp?
160-170
yolks coagulate at what temp?
150-160
egg whites coagulate at what temp?
140-150
method for making pastry cream . . .
dissolve sugar in milk, bring to boil
beat eggs in bowl
add cornstarch, sugar into eggs and beat
temper with hot milk
return to heat, boil and stir for two minutes
add butter, vanilla
wrap in plastic, cool
method for creme brulee . . .
place cream in pot on high heat
add salt, sugar
yolks are in separate bowl
temper yolks
add vanilla
strain with chinois
use torch to kill bubbles
use hot water bath
bake at 325
pastry creme is also called
creme patisserie
what does starch do in a pastry cream?
stabilizes the egg
adding a meringue to a pastry cream and stabilizing with gelatin makes it a what?
Chiboust
method for creme caramel - flan
combine sugar, salt, milk vanilla in a pot on high heat
scramble eggs in a mixing bowl, but don't whip
temper into egg mixture, stirring
skim off bubbles/foam
use a hot water bath
what are key differences between pastry cream, flan and creme brulee procedures?
flan and creme brulee must not be whipped.

brulee and flan are baked; pastry cream is a stir and cook method
how does starch increase the temp of egg coagulation?
by slowing the process, which increases the temp at which it happens
how do pastry cream and vanilla custard differ?
pastry cream must be boiled for 2 minutes because of the starch. Vanilla custard would curdle if heated like that.
whipped cream is what?
an ingredient inside many desserts
what is sweetened, vanilla-flavored whipped cream called?
creme chantilly
guidelines for whipped cream . . .
cream needs to be a day old at least

everything should be chilled thoroughly, including equipment
use wire whip for hand beating or medium speed mixer
use extra fine granulated sugar or sifted powdered sugar
don't overwhip
if it has to be folded, underbeat it
add flavor ingredients last
refrigerate
what does "fraiser" refer to
the collar of a lady's dress

a method of pushing out pate brisee dough
what does "feuilletee" mean?
puff pastry
what size should fat be for classic biscuits?

for cakelike biscuits?
hazelnut

cornmeal
you should rest biscuit dough at least how long?
10 minutes in cooler
can a pate brisee crust be used for the top or the bottom of the pie?
for both
chiffon pie method . . .
make syrup
make slurry
add sugar, lemon, egg yolks
temper
boil 2 minutes
add gelatin
wrap and cool
make meringue to ribbon stage
fold together
muffin batter method . . .
all dry and all wet go in separate bowls

whisk a little dry into the wet
blueberries go into dry ingredients
add liquid into the dry and whisk
leave a little flour; it will bake off
muffin creaming method. . .
mix fat, powdered milk, sugar, salt in mixer bowl with speed 1

add eggs slowly

add flour

alternate wet and dry ingredients
scoop out 2/3s high into muffin tins
What does "boil milky sugar, corn the eggs and sugar, tempers boil to buttery finish" mean?
Steps for making pastry cream.
Give examples of cream pies . . .
same as puddings
same as pastry cream with added flavors:

chocolate, lemon, vanilla, coconut
what is the difference between pastry cream and cream pies?
cream pies are made with cornstarch

pastry cream may use flour, cornstarch or other starches
what does "potted cream takes the heat with salt and sugar; yolk has a temper and vanilla feels the strain" mean?
method for making creme brulee with a British bent:

cream goes in the pot over high heat, add the salt and sugar;

in a separate bowl, mix the yolks (but don't whip) and temper with hot cream. Then add vanilla in, strain through chinois.
what is Popelini known for in 1540?
The first to mix flour and water to form a paste.
What did Jean Avice add to the basic flour and water mixture in 1760?
eggs. He named the new mixture "pate a choux."
What did Careme add to the development of choux paste?
bread flour
what is the mixture of flour and water known as before eggs are added?
panade
what does "dorer" mean?
to apply egg wash
what does "dessecher" mean?
to dry out, as in choux paste that is baked
what does quinconce mean?
stagger the row of pastries so air flows around them
Who was Catherine de Medici's chef?
Panterelli
what is a "carpet"?
Film on bottom of pan when you're cooking choux paste
what are the 3 tests that the choux paste is done mixing?
V test (dough falls in a V when you hold it off a spoon)

finger test (draw line in the paste, if it closes in 3 seconds it's done)

stretch test - when pulled apart by fingers, should reach about 4 inches before breaking
when making creme brulee, at what temp is the heated milk supposed to be when ready?
185

"ow" test with finger
wisps of steam visible
no bubbles
what chef brought creme patisserie to France?
Chef Panterelli, from Italy
blanchir technique is used in the making of what dessert piece?
pastry cream
about how much acid or invert syrup should be added to cooking sugar of 24 ounces?
1 teaspoon
how is flan different from creme brulee?
Its sugar is placed on the bottom, then is shown when the flan is flipped over from the tin.

A brulee sugar topping is placed on the top after baking and cooling
Flan procedure (different from textbook)
sugar, salt, milk and vanilla go in to the pot, to cook to 180

scramble the eggs in a mixing bowl - if you don't, the whites will settle at the top and burn; DON'T add too much air when scrambling

temper

pour all in bowl

strain
why does flan take longer to cook than creme brulee?
because of caramel layer on the bottom
lemon curd method
all ingredients go in a double boiler (but melt the butter first!)

once water boils, turn down to simmer

keep whisking until it thickens to ketchup feel

once it holds shape, it's done

strain with chinois

best if cooled overnight
what is a ganache?
a mixture of heated cream, mixed with chocolate to be used as an icing or candy filling
what is the enemy of ganache?
air - never use a whisk to blend it.
why shouldn't you store ganache in the fridge or freezer for a long time?
bacteria will grow
how should ganache be stored?
at room temp and used within 2 days
what can you add to ganache to fix it if it breaks?
add more chocolate or cream, or place it in the robo and grind on high speed
when blackening the sugar on top of creme brulee, what causes the blackening?
impurities