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208 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is most of the skeleton made of?
True or False. Bone is relatively lightweight and strong.
describe why bone tissue is dynamic.
It is constantly remodeled, broke down, reabsorbed and reformed.
What kind of tissue is bone?
A specialized connective tissue
What is the function of bone tissue?
Homeaostasis of important minerals; Hemoposis; & energy storage
What is hemoposis?
Blood cell production
What tissue is used to store energy? Where is it located?
Adipose tissue in yellow marrow
What is the function the skeletal system?
Supports and protects soft tissue. Function in conjunction with muscle to produce movement.
What are the five principle types of bones (there are six, but we are only focusing on five of them? What are some examples of each bone?
Long-Femur, Short-Carpals, Flat-Scapula, Irregular-Vertebra, Sutural-Found in skill (The sutural vary per individual)
What are the parts of a long bone?
Diaphysis, Epiphysis, Metaphysis, Hyaline (hyaline-like) cartilage, Periosteum, Marrow (meduallary) cavity, Endosteum
What part of the long bone is the Diaphysis?
The shaft
What part of the long bone is the Epiphysis (ephyses-pl.)?
The end
What part of the long bone is the Metaphysis?
Region between the shaft & end (Growth in immature bone occurs here)
What part of the long bone is the Hyaline (Hyaline-like) cartilage?
Cartilage that covers bone surfaces where joints form
What is the Periosteum?
A membrane (two layers) that covers the bone surface.
Describe the the layers of the periosteum.
The inner membrane is a fibrous layer. The outer membrane is an osteogenic layer.
What is the Marrow (medullary) Cavity?
The space within the diaphysis. It contains the yellow marrow.
What is the Endosteum?
A membrane that lines the marrow cavity.
What are the the percentages and ingredients of Bone Tissue Matrix?
35% fibers-give tensil strength; 50% mineral salts-compressive strength; ~15% water
Name the cell types found in the bone tissue.
Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, Osteoprogenitor cells, Osteoclasts
What are the functions and characteristics of osteoprogenitor cells?
Generates "new" cells. It is a stem cell, but not like the emryonic kind. It has mitotic potential and divides to maintain a stem cell line. It can differentiate into an osteoblast. It is derived from mesenchyme, an embryonic CT that gives rise to all CT, including bone and muscle.
What are the functions and characteristics of osteoblasts?
Participates in bone formation by secretion of a matix that consists of aollagen and uncalcified G.S. It is called an "immature" bone cell. It cannot divide.
What are the functions and characteristics of osteocytes?
Directs the ongoing activities of bone, such as protein synthesis & exchange, or maintains the bone matrix. It is the principle bone cell. It is a mature bone cell. It can no longer secrete matrix. It is the "adult" version of the "blast".
What are the functions and characteristics of ostoclasts?
Resoption (breakdown) of matrix arise from monocytes (a WBC)
What forms bone matrix?
An abundance of mineralized salts within a fibrous network. The types of mineral salts are hydroxyapatite (tricalcium phosphate), calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide.
What is calcification?
Mineralization. Deposition of mineral salts into framework of collagen fibers; Thus, the tissue hardens. However, the collagen network must be present first.
Give an analogy to the process of calcification.
Like steel reinforced concrete. The steel rods are laid (the matrix), then the concrete is added (mineral salts), and then it hardens (bone calcification).
What gives bone its strength?
Mineral salts & fibers
What kind of strength are the mineral salts responsible for?
Responsible for compressive strength. Bone hardness.
What kind of strength are the fibers in bone responsible for?
Responsible for tensile strength. Resistance to tearing & stretching.
Name the two types of bone tissue and how they are determined as these types.
Compact & Spongy. Bone is not completely solid, it has many small spaces. The type depends on size & distribution.
What is compact bone?
A repeat area of osteons with relatively few spaces (not readily apparent).
What is compact bone also called?
Dense bone, Cortical bone
Where is compact bone found?
It forms the diaphysis of long bones. It always covers spongy bone.
What is the function and importance of compact bone?
It provides support & protection which is very important in long bones which bear much stress.
What is the basic unit of structure in compact bone tissue?
Osteons (older name of this is Haversian systems)
Describe the characteristics of an osteon.
Consists of a Central (Haversian) canal (blood vessels run through the tube), surrounded by concentric layers of bone matrix called lamallae. The central canal carries blood & lymph vessels and nerves. It is parallel to th long axis.
Define lamellae and where are the lamellae found?
Layers of matrix surrounding lacunae.
Define lacunae and where are lacunae found?
A pocket sandwiched between layers of matrix.
Where are osteocytes found? How many are found in an osteon?
It occupies a lacuna and the lacuna will never contain more than one.
What are canaliculi?
Small canals radiating from lacunae and filled with ECF
Whare are osteocyte processes?
Branches of the cell found within the canaliculi. They contact those of neighboring cells.
What do the osteocyte processes and ECF inside caniculi provide?
a network of communication and exchange (oxygen, nutrients, wast products)
What is a perforating (volkmann's) canal? Where is it?
A passagewar for vessels & nerves to penetrate thru periosteum. These run perpendicular to the long axis.
What is the interstitial lamallae?
Fragments of older, degenerating osteons
What is the shape of interstitial lamallae? Where do you find it?
Not round because no blood vessels through it. It is found between the basic until of structure of compact bone.
What is spongy bone?
No osteons are present, the matrix forms trabeculae. It has many spaces and looks like a sponge.
What is spongy bone also called?
cancellous bone (cancellous refers to the numbers of spaces), trabecular bone
Where is spongy bone found?
It is found inside the epiphyses of long bones
What is the function and importance of spongy bone?
It is the only site of red marrow storage (blood cell formation) and it is arranged to amximize transmission of force. The spaces are filled with red marrow.
What is spongy bone made up of?
lamallea arranged in an irregular network (lattice) composed of thin plates.
Whare are the thin plates in spongy bone called?
Where are the osteocytes in spongy bone? Does it have osteons?
the trabeculae have these within lacunae and canaliculi. There are no osteons.
Why are there no osteons in spongy bone?
Don't need them because they trabeculae is surrounded by blood (red marrow).
What is ossification?
The transformation of embryonic or adult CT proper or cartilage into bone.
What is ossification also known as?
What does bone matrix development involve?
Collagen protein secretion to form a collagen fiver network. Secretion of osteoid. Deposition of calcium salts.
What is osteoid?
uncalcified ground substance
When does embryonic bone development occur?
begins @ 6 weeks.
What is a mesenchyme?
an embryonic CT that gives rise to all CT, including bone and muscle.
What does hyaline cartilage form in an embryo?
Fibrous membranes shaped like bones
What is the general path of ossification in an embryo?
The mesenchyme cells become loosely shaped into bones and may differentiate into cartilage cells. The mesenchyme cells give rise to the osteoprogenitor cells. The osteoprogenitor cells give rise to osteoblasts. The osteoblasts form bone by one of two methods.
What are the two methods of ossification and what are the associated sites?
Intramembranous-mandible, clavicle, skull (including fontanels); Endochondral-embryogenesis of most bones of the body (also, lengthwise growth of long bones)
Name the intramembranous ossification process steps.
Formation of a center of ossification. Development of trabeculae. Maturation.
What happens during the formation of a center of ossification?
Blood vessels development occurs within mesenchyme. The mesenchymal cells give rise to osteoprogenitor cells. The osteoprogenitor cells give rise to osteoblasts. The osteoblasts secrete uncaldified matrix called osteoid. As osteoid calcified the cells become trapped and are now called osteocytes.
What happens during the development of a trabeculae?
Small struts called spicules grow out from the center of ossification to form trabeculae. At the edges, mesenchyme cells continue to differentiate. Trabeculae from different centers fuse to form spongy bone.
What happens during the maturation?
Remodeling of spongy bone at the surface around trapped blood vessels gives rose to osteons and thus form compact bone. The outer later of mesenchyme gives rise to the periosteum. Remodeling gives the bone its characteristic shape.
Name the endochondral ossification process steps.
Cartilage development. Cartilage Growth. Development of a Primary Center of Ossification. Development of a Secondary Center of Ossification.
What happens during cartilage development?
The mesenchyme cells give rise to chondroblasts. The condroblasts produce the matrix of hyaline cartilage. The ourter mesenchyme cells give rise to a perichondrium.
What happens during cartilage growth?
Interstitial growth & appositional growth. New chondroblasts at surface arise from perichondrium. Chondrocytes in mid region grow & burst. This lead to calcification which slows diffusion. Remaining cells die & leave behind calcified cartilage matrix. Nutrient artery penetrates perichondrium & stimulates mesenchyme cells to give rise to osteoprogenitor cells & osteoprogenitor cells give rise to osteoblasts. osteoblasts lay down compact bone to form a bony collar under the perichondrium. Perichondrium now called periosteum.
What is growth in length called? What is involved with this growth?
Interstitial growth. This involves divisiton of chondroblasts and continued secretion of matrix.
What is growth in thickness called? What is involved with this growth?
appositional growth. This involves choondroblasts adding matrix at the surface.
What happens during development of a primary center of ossification?
Periosteal capillaries grow into calcified matrix. Osteoblasts lay down bone matrix to form spongy bone. Osteoclasts break it down to leave a marrow cavity.
Where does the development of a primary center of ossification occur?
Occurs in the central region, where bone replaces cartilage
What happens during development of a secondary center of ossification?
Cartilage becomes calcified…ETC. Epiphyseal artery grows into the area. Osteoblasts secrete bone matrix & form spongy bone.
Where does the development of a secondary center of ossification occur?
Occurs in the ends, where bone replaces cartilage. Occurs at about the time of birth in humans.
What are the three main differences that occur during development of a secondary center of ossification?
Spongy bone remains. No marrow cavity forms. Hyaline cartilage remains at the epiphyseal plate.
What type of growth is bone growth?
apositional growth
Where does lengthwise bone growth occur?
Occurs at the epiphyseal plate.
What are the four zones of bone growth from the epiphyseal to diaphyseal surface?
Resting cartilage, Proliferating cartilage, Hypertrophic cartilage, Calcified cartilage
What cells are found in the zone of resting cartilage and what are the functions of these cells?
Small cartilage cells are found here but these cells do not function in bone growth.
What cells are found in the zone of proliferating cartilage and what are the functions of these cells?
Larger than resting cells aligned in rows. These cells divide to give rise to new cartilage cells. These replace dead cells at the diaphyseal side of the plate.
What cells are found in the zone of resting cartilage and what are the functions of these cells?
Compared to proliferating cartilage cells, even larger cells in more discrete rows (cells are more mature).
What cells are found in the zone of resting cartilage and what are the functions of these cells?
Dead cells make up a calcified matrix where bone is formed. Osteoclasts remove some of the matrix, while osteoblasts lay down on remaining matrix.
True or False. The thickness of the epiphyseal plate remains sporadic as bone increase in length (until puberty).
False. As bone increase in length, the thickness of the epiphyseal plate remains constant until puberty.
When does the thickness of the epiphyseal plate no longer remain constant?
At puberty because hormone changes cause osteoblasts activity to increase, thus causeing the plate to narrow.
When do cartilage cells stop dividing?
At adulthood
What the the remnant of the epiphyseal plate called?
The epiphyseal line.
What does the line indicate?
That growth has stopped.
What happenes during diamter bone growth?
Osteoblasts in the periosuen add bone to the outer surface. Osteoclasts remove bone lingn the marrow cavity.
What happens when osteoblasts add bone to the outer surface?
Sponge bone is formed first. Replaced by compact bone.
What happens as bone diameter increases and why is this important?
The cavity increases in diameter. Thus, bone does not becomes too heavy.
What is bone remodeling?
It is the continual replacement of old bone with new bone because bone is constantly changing nad it is always metabolically active.
Why is bone remodeling important?
It allows worn out bone to be replaced. The matrix is redistributed to points of mechanical stress (I.e. altered appearances). It allows bone to serve as a calcium reserve.
What does bone remodeling involve homeaostasis between?
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
What do osteoclasts secrete during bone remodeling?
These cells secrete enzymes that digest proteins (I.e. collagen) and acids which dissove minerals during bone remodeling.
What nutrients are required during bone remodeling?
Vitamin C, D; Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium; Growth hormone, sex hormones, thyroxine.
Why do you need Vitamin C & D (r/t bone remodeling)?
Vitamin C for collagen production and osteoblasts differentiation. Vitamin D (calcitrol) to promote Ca2++ absorption in GE and decrease Ca2++ loss in urine.
Why do you need Calcium, Phosphorus, & Magnesium (r/t bone remodeling)?
Calcium & Phosphorus are hydrosyapatite components. Magnesium is needed for osteoblast activity.
Why do you need hormones (r/t bone remodeling)?
Growth hormone increases protein synthesis. Sex hormones & thyroxine increase osteoblast activity
What are some functions of Ca2++?
Initiates muscle contractions. Neuron functions. Blood clotting.
How does bone regulate calcium?
It buffers calcium (the kidneys & GI tract also contribute). Involves two important hormones that regulate Ca2++ exchange between bone & blood (parathyroid-PTH, calcitonin-CT).
What does PTH do?
Increases blood Ca2++ concentrations which increases activity of osteoclasts-->thus, increases bone resorption. Decreases loss in urine.
What does CT do?
Decreases blood Ca2++ concentrations which inhibit osteoclasts-->thus, decreases resorption of Ca2++ from bone.
What does the skeletal system consist of?
A framework o fbones and carilage that protects organs and allows movement.
What are the structural features, visible on the surface of bones, called and what do they represent?
Bone landmarks. Each marking is structured for a specific functino including joint formation, muscle attachment, or passage of nerves and blood vessels.
What are the two major divisions of the skeletal system?
the axial system and the appendicular skeleton.
What bones and how many make up the axial skeleton?
It consist of 80 bones that are arranged along the longitudinal axis of the body, including those that make up the skull, the hyoid bone, bones of the vertebral column, the sternum, and the ribs.
How many and what kind of bones are found in the skull?
It is composed of 22 bones, including 8 cranial bones and 14 facial bones. Sutures are the inmmovable joints that are found only between skull bones.
What are fontanels?
Dense connective tissue membrane-rilled spaces between the cranial bones of fetuses and infants. The remain unossified at birth but close early in a child's life.
What are the major functions of the fontanels?
They enable the fetal skull to modify its size and shape as it passes through the birth canal and they allow rapid growth of the brain during infancy.
What is the function of the hyoid bone?
A U-shaped bone that articulates with no other bone of the body. It suports the tongue and provides attachment for some of its muscles as well as some neck muscles.
What is the function of the vertebral column?
It constitutes the skeleton of the trunk. It is composed of 26 bones, distributed into five regions.
What are the regions from top to bottom of the vertebral column? How many bones are in each region?
Cervial (7); Thoracic (12); Lumbar (5); Sacrum (fusion of 5 bones); Coccyx
What forms the strong joints between the adjacent vertebrae?
Intervertebral discs
Whatare the major functions of the intervebral discs?
They permit various movements of the vertebral column and they absorf vertical shock which is applied to the vertebral column.
What is the basic structure of the various vertebrae?
Each consists of a body, a vertebral (neural) arch, and seven processes.
What does the thoracic skeleton consist of?
The sternum, ribs, and costal cartilage, and thoracic vertebrae.
What is the function of the thoracic cage?
It protects vital organs in the chest area and upper abdomen and provides suport for the shoulder girdle and upper extremities.
What does the appendicular skeleton consist of?
It consists of 126 bones including the bones of the pectoral girdles (shoulders), upper extremities, pelvic girdle (hips), and the lower extremities.
What is the function of the pectoral girdle?
It attaches the bones of the upper extremities to the axial skeleton. The bones of this form a framework that allows the shoulder joint to be freely moveable with a great range of motion.
What does each pectoral girdle consist of?
a clavicle and a scapula
What is the most frequently broken bone in the body and why?
The clavicle because it transmits all of the forces from the upper extremity to the trunk.
What does the scapulae do and how is it held in place?
They articulate with other bones anteriorly. They are helod in place posteriorly only by complex shoulder and back musculature.
How many bones does the upper extremity contain? Total?
30 (60 total) bones.
What bone is located in the arm?
The humerus
What bones are in forarm? How are the located in the foream?
The radius and the ulna (ulna is on little finger side, radius is on thumb side).
What and how many bones comprise the wrist?
Eight carpal bones bound together by ligaments.
What and how many bones are contained in the palm of each hand?
Five metacarpal bones
How many phalangeal bones does each hand contain and how are they distributed in the thumb and fingers?
14 phalangeal bones-3 in each finger and 2 in the thumb.
What does the pelvic girdle consist of?
Two coxal bones (aka- hipbones, coxae bones, inominate bones)
What is the function of the pelvic girdle?
Provides strong and stable support for the lower extremities on which the weight of the body is carried.
What forms the pelvis?
Two coxal bones (aka- hipbones, coxae bones, inominate bones), the coccyx and the sacrum.
What is the coxal bone composed of at birth?
The ilium, pubis, and the ischium.
Where do these bones fuse?
The acetabulum
What is the actabulum?
A depression that forms the socket for the hip joint.
How many bones does the lower extremity contain? Total?
30 (60 total) bones.
What is the longest and heaviest bone in the body? Where is it located?
The femur. The thigh.
What are the large obvous markings on the femur for?
Represent points fo attachment for the many large thigh muscles.
What bones lie parallel in the leg?
The tibia and the fibula.
What bone in the leg is larger, more medial and bears the majority of the weight?
The tibia
What are the bones of and how many make up the ankle?
Seven tarsal bones
What are the function of the bones of the ankle?
These bones share the weight associated with walking.
What are the bones of and how many are contained in the foot?
Five metatarsal bones.
How many phalangeal bones are in each foot and how are they distributed in the toes?
14 phalangeal bones-2 in the big toe and 3 in each of the other toes.
What is the function of the axial skeleton?
It protects internal organs (forsal & ventral gody cavities). It provides an extensive area for muscle attachment. Its joints allow a limited amount of movement.
Where are the cranial bones? What are the functions of the cranial bones?
The skull. Inside-Provides a fluid-filled cavity to protect the brain. Outside-Points for muscle attachments.
Where are the facial bones? What are the functions of the facial bones?
The skull. Inside-Protects entrances to digestive & respiratory tracts. Outside-Points for muscle attachments
What are sinuses? What is the function of sinuses?
Air-fulled chambers in the skull. Makes the skull lighter.
What are the names of the paranasal sinuses? What is the main function of the paranasal sinuses?
Frontal, sphenoi, ethmoid, palatine, maxillae. EPE produces mucus to clean & moisten air.
What are sutures?
Immovable joints between skull bones of adults
What skull bone articulates with the C1 vertebra?
Occipital condyles
What processes make up the temporal skull bone?
Zygomatic process, mastoid process, styloid process
Describe the what/where the zygomatic process is.
In the temporal bone of the skull. It forms the zygomatic arch (cheekbone)
Describe the what/where the mastoid process is.
In the temporal bone of the skull. It is an area of attachment for muscles that rotate and move the head.
Describe the what/where the styloid process is.
In the temporal bone of the skull. It is an attachment point for ligaments that support the hyoid & some of the tongue muscles.
Where is the sphenoid and what are its functions?
It is largely hidden. It contributes to the floor of the cranium. It unites cranial & facial bones. It functions as a grace to strengthen sides of skull.
Where/what is the ethmoid?
It is visible from many perspectives. It forms part of orbital wall, floor or cranium, roof of nasal cavity.
Where/what is the Vomer?
It forms the nasal septum?
What is the function of the Inferior nasal conchae?
It slows the flow of air & creates turbulence.
What is the vertebral column and what is its key functions and characteristics?
aka-spinal column. It supports weight of the head, trunk & neck. It is curvatious. It protects the spinal cord. Its individual bones increase in size as you proceed down.
Why are the spinal curves essential?
They bring body weight in line w/ body axis.
Why do the vertebrae increase in size as you proceed down the spinal column?
To increase surface area because the lower vertebrae bear more weight.
What are the functions fo the spinous & transverse processes?
They artticulate with the ribs. They are the site of muscle attachment.
What is the articular processes?
Inferior processes of one vertebra that articulate with superior process of the sacrum, coccyx, atlas (C1) or Axis (C2)
What the the small vertebae that completely fuses into one bone? When does it happen?
Sacrum. Usally during a person's 20's.
What is a fusion of 3 to 5 very small vertebrae? When is ossification complete?
Coccyx. Puberty.
What bone articulates with the occipital condyles and what is significant about its landmarks?
The atlas (C1). It has no body or spinous processes.
What is the Dens?
Fusion of bodies of C1 & C2
What is the C2 vertebra?
The axis.
What allows the atlas to rotate around the dens?
The transverse ligament allows this movement.
What is an articulation?
The surface where two skeletal elements meet, forming a moveable or an immovable joint.
What are bones connected by?
Flexible CT.
What are the morphological features that determine the function of a joint?
How well articulating surfaces fit together. Extensibility of joint capsule. Location of accessory ligaments. Nature of the surroinding skeletal muscle.
What is the structural classification based on?
Presence of a joint cavity (spaces between bones) and type of CT present.
What are the structural classifications? What are the classifications of each one?
Fibrous-fibrous CT; no joint cavity; Cartilagenous-cartilage, no joint cavity; Synovial-complex capsule with a joint cavity.
What is the basis used for functional slassification and what are the three classifications?
It is based on amount of movement. Synarthrodial, Amphiarthrodial, Diarthrodial
What is a synarthrodial joint?
an immovable joint
What are the types of symarthroidal joints?
Suture, Gomphosis, Synchondrosis, Synostosis
What is an amphiarthrodial joint?
a slightly movable joint.
What are the types of amphiarthrodial joints?
Symphysis, Syndesmosis
What is a diarthrodial joint?
a freely movable joint
What is a bursa?
A cavity that helps suchion joints.
What are the types of diarthrodial joints?
Gliding, Hinge, Pivot, Ellipsoidal, Saddle, Ball-and-Socket
What is a suture and some examples?
A joint that unites skull bones. It is fibrous, dense CT. It has an irregual surface. It increases strength.
What is a gomphosis and some examples?
A joint between a tooth and th maxille or mandible. It is cone-shpaed peg of fibrous CT
What is a synchondrosis and some examples?
A cartilageneous joint. Epiphyseal plate.
What is a synostosis and some examples?
A bony joint that replaces a suture. Frontal suture between left and right sides of fronal bones. Epiphyseal line.
What is a symphysis and some examples?
A flat disc of fibrous cartilage. Intervertebral disc, Pubic symphysis.
What is a syndesmosis and some examples?
A fibrous joint (more fibrous than sutures). Interosseous membranes. Distal articulation of tibia and fibia.
Describe a gliding joint. What are the movements and some examples?
articulating surfaces are flat, movement very slight, twisting is prevented by ligaments (& maybe adjacent bones). ends of clavicle, carpal bones
Describe a hinge joint. What are the movements and some examples?
convex surface fits into a concave one, movemnt on one plane, monoaxial, "flexion & extenson". Elbow, knee, ankle
Describe a pivot joint. What are the movements and some examples?
round surface fits into a ring formed by bone & ligament, movement is monoaxial, "rotation" around ling axis. Head of radius, axis-atlas
Describe a ellipsoidal joint. What are the movements and some examples?
oval face fits into shallow depression, movemen biaxial , ("back & forth" ; "side to side"), combine to permit curcumduction-distal end move in a circle, rotation is prevented, radius-carpals, base of phalanges.
Describe a saddle joint. What are the movements and some examples?
two bone surfaces are "nested" together (like a rider in a saddle), movement same as ellipsoidal. Base of thumb.
Describe a ball-and-socket joint. What are the movements and some examples?
A round head fits into a cup-like depression, movement all angular planes and rotation-considered trisaxial-plus circumduction.
What are the diarthrodial joint structures?
Articular (hyaline-like) cartilage. Complex articular capsule. Accessory ligaments. Articular discs.
What does articular (hyaline-like) cartilage do?r/t joints…
Covers bones surfaces
What does Complex articular capsule surround? What does it do?
A cavity and holds bones in place.
What are the layers of Complex articular capsule (CAC) joint structure?
Fibrous Capsule & synovial membrane
What is the function and characteristics of the fibrous capsule layer of the complex articular capsule joint? Give an example.
Outer layer. Dense CT. Attaches to periosteum. Flexible enough to allow movement. Great tensile strength, so resists dislocation. May have associated ligaments-dense regular CT-attaches bone to bone. Knee joint.
What is the function and characteristics of the synovial membrane layer of the complex articular capsule joint?
Inner layer. EPI with areolar CT. Secretes synovial fluid into cavity.
The synovial membrane is (fill it in) type of (fill it in) membrane.
4th. Epithelial.
What is the key ingredient of synovial fluid and what is this fluid's function?
It is rich in hyaluronic acid. It lubricates, thus, reduces friction.
What are the names of the Accessory ligments?
Extracapsular, Intracapsular
Describe the extracapsular ligament and give some examples.
Outside articular capsule. Tibial collateral ligament.
Describe the intracapsular ligament and give some examples.
Inside capsule. Folds of synovial membrane isolate it from the cavity. Anterior cruciate ligament, Posterior cruciate ligament.
What is the function of Artucular discs?
They modify the shape of bone surface to allow tow bones of different shape to fit together more tightly.