• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/140

Click to flip

140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the embryonic names for the 5 divisions of the CNS?
Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Mesencephalon, Metecephalon, and Myelencephalon.
Other than telencephalon, diencephalon, metecephalon, and myelencephalon; what is the last division of the CNS?
Mesencephalon
Was means "far"?
Tel
What division of the CNS becomes the future cerebrum?
Telencephalon
What division of the CNS becomes the future thalamus, epithalamus, and hypothalamus?
Diencephalon
What means "two or second"?
Di
What means "middle"?
Mes
What division of the CNS becomes the future midbrain?
Mesencephalon
What division of the CNS means "after"?
Metencephalon
What division of the CNS becomes the future pons and cerebellum?
Metencephalon
What means "spinal cord"?
Myel
What division of the CNS becomes the future medulla oblongata?
Myelencephalon
What division of the CNS is part of the brain that attaches to the spinal cord?
Myelencephalon
What is another name for the communication system?
Neuroendocrine System
What are the 2 parts of the communication system?
Nervous and Endocrine
What part of the communication system communicates through neurotransmitters?
Nervous
What are the 2 neurotransmitters that the nervous system communicates though?
Epi/Norepi
What part of the communication system communicates through hormones?
Endocrine
What are the hormones that the endocrine system communicates through?
Estrogen/Testosterone/Prolactin
What division of the nervous system integrates and controls body functions?
CNS
How many pairs of cranial nerves and how many pairs of spinal nerves is the Peripheral Nervous System composed of?
12 pair or CN and 31 pair of SN
What are the 2 functional divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System?
Afferent & Efferent Pathways
What function division of the PNS goes "towards" the CNS?
Afferent Pathways
What function division of the PNS "exits" the CNS?
Efferent Pathways
What type of cells are the cells in the nervous system that transmit impulses by releasing neurotransmitters?
Neurons
What type of cells are where the cells wrap their cell membranes around axons in the PNS?
Schwann
What are the layers of cell membranes called in Schwann cells?
Myelination
What type of cell is a group of cells that support, feed, and protect neurons?
Neuroglia
What type of cell is like a "care taker"?
Neuroglia
What ratio of neuroglia to neurons are where most neuroglia cells are ostrocytes?
10:1
What type of neuron is the specific name for the part of a neuron that surrounds the cell nucleus?
Perikaryon
What part of the perikaryon is the organelle inside the cell that contains DNA and controls the activities of the cell?
Nucleus
What part of the parikaryon contains rough ER?
Nissl Bodies
What part of the perikaryon supports the cell like the skeletal system supports the body?
Neurofibrils
What part of the perikaryon are tiny tubes that transport "stuff" from one part of the neuron to another?
Microtubules
What part of the perikaryon are tiny structural fibers in the cell?
Neurofibrils
What is part of the neuron that controls the passage of impulses to the axon?
Axon Hillock
What is located near the base of the axon where the axon is wide and "decides" whether or not enough stimuli has arrived to the perikaryon to send a depolarization wave along the axon?
Axon Hillock
Where are perikaryons located?
Brain and Spinal Cord wherever the tissue is gray.
What term is used to name the organelle in the cell that contains chromosomes and also the name for a mass of perikaryons inside the CNS?
Nuclei
Perikaryons are present along nerves in the PNS known as?
Ganglia
How many of the 4 types of ganglia are associated with the ANS?
3 out of 4
What is the receptor part of a neuron?
Dendrite
How many dendrites are on a single neuron?
Many
What part of the neuron carries an impulse to another neuron or to a receptor again?
Axons
What branches does the axon branch into several of?
Collateral Branches
What end of an axon splits off into many branches?
Terminal End
What are the terminal branches called?
Telodendria
What is the speed of depolarization of Schwann cells?
Myelination
What has multiple layers of myelin that is formed by Schwann cells in the PNS and oligondendrocytes in the CNS?
Myelination
What are gaps betwen Schwann cells?
Nodes of Ranvier
What is the membrane and cytoplasm part of the Scwann cell that is exposed to the outside of the meylin sheath?
Neurilemma
Cells in the CNS that form myelin are called?
Oligodendrocytes
What is an autoimmune disease that causes demyelination in neurons?
Multiple Sclerosis
What are the 3 classification of structure on neurons?
Bipolar, Unipolar, and Multipolar
What structure of a neuron has one axon and one dendrite?
Bipolar
What structure of a neuron has a single axon that arises from the perikaryon at the same place?
Unipolar
What structure of a neuron has many dendrites and one axon that arises from the perikaryon?
Multipolar
What are the 3 types of functions are neurons classified by?
Motor, Sensory, and Interneuron or assocaition neurons
What type of neurons carry impulses away from the CNS and are motor?
Efferent
What type of neurons carry impulses toward the CNS that are sensory?
Afferent
What function lies between sensory and motor neurons in the pathway of the nerve impulses?
Inerneuron or association neurons
What are bundles of axons that are located in the body outside the CNS?
Nerves
What are the 3 types of connective tissue sheaths?
Endoneurium, Perineurium, and epineurium
What type of c.t sheath surrounds axons?
Endoneurium
What type of c.t sheath surrounds bundles of axons?
Perineurium
What type of c.t sheath surrounds bundles of fassicles?
Epineurium
Are neuroglia ectodermal?
Yes
What is mesodermal?
Microglia
Neuroglial cells are able to divide during what cell division phase?
Mitosis
What are the 4 types of neuroglial cells?
Astrocytes, oligondendrocytes, Ependymal, and microglia
What type of neuroglial cells are star shaped?
Astrocytes
What type of neuroglial cells hold neurons with some of their appandages and blood vessels with other appendages?
Astrocytes
What type of astrocyte protects neurons from any rapid change of environment?
Blood-Brain-barrier (BBB)
What does BBB stand for?
Blood-Brain-Barrier
What protects neurons from damaging substances that are present in blood?
Astrocytes
What form myelin sheaths in the CNS?
Oligodendrocytes
What has few appendages which warp around axons in the CNS to form myelinations?
Oligodendrocytes
What has cells that form the lining of the brain ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord?
Ependymal
How many chambers are in the brain?
4
What are the chambers in the brain called?
Ventricles
What are the ventricles filled with?
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
What is the cauliflower like mass of capillaries that are located in the roof of each of the four ventricles?
Choroid Plexus
What are the phagocytic cells that crawl between the cells of the nervous system and engulf microorganisms and dead cells?
Microglia
What is important becauseof the immune system is denied access to the CNS?
Microglia
What is "oma" Greek for?
Tumor
What type of tumor is where astrocyte is the origin cell?
Astrocytoma
What type of tumor is where oligodendrocyte is the origin cell?
Oligodendroglioma
What type of tumor is where the ependymomal cell is the origin?
Ependymoma
What tumor is in the cerebral ventricle?
Ependymoma
What type of tumor has microglial cells as the origin cell?
Microglioma
What type of cell originates from Scwann cells?
Neurilemmoma
In what layer of the epidermis does most of the mitotic division occur?
Stratum Basale
What is the common name for hemangioma?
Birthmark
Name the gland that is in the eyelash follicle which produces a secretion that moistens eyelashes?
Cilary Gland
What class of lever is the biceps muscle flexing the elbow an example?
3
Name the cartilage plate where bone elongation occurs in long bones?
Epiphyseal Plate
Name a bone that develops as an intramembranous bone?
Clavicle
What is the function of Vitamin D3?
Calcium Absorption
What is the common name for kyphosis?
"Hump" back
What type of cartilage is present on the articular surfaces of synovial joints?
Hyaline
Other than the tibia and the femur, what bone is part of the knee joint?
Patella
What is the Gree word that means "flesh" and refers to muscle tissue?
Sarco
What is the general name for a cluster of perikarya (neuron cell bodies contraining the neuron's nucleus) that is outside the CNS?
Ganglia
Which division of the autonomic nervous system causes heart rate to increase?
Sympathetic
Of the three types of muscle tissue, which one fatigues at the fastest rate?
Skeletal
What specific stuructre does perimysium surround?
Muscle follicles
What band in a sarcomere has a Z line running right down through its middle?
I-Band
What is the molecular name for the contractile protein in myofilaments that has two little "heads" at one end?
Myosin
What is the whole name for neurotransmitter that is released from motor neurons and stimulates msucle contraction?
Acetycholine
Name a muscle that is named by its shape?
Deltoid
On what day of embryonic life does the embryo begin to implant into the endometrium?
Day 6
Name something that is part of the skeletal systsem other than bones?
Cartilage & ligaments
Which one of the three parts of a lever is located between the other two parts in a class 2 lever?
Resistance
What is the anatomical name for the long "shaft" part of a long bone?
Diaphysis
Name the genetic condition that causes "Wiender dogs" and bassels to have short legs?
Achondroplasia
Give the name for the collagen fibers that connect the periosteum with the underlying bone tissue.
Sharpy's Fiber
What is the other name for perforating canals, which interconnect two haversian canals in compact bone?
Volkmann
What type of bone tissue has trabeculae?
Cancellous/Spongy
During endochondral bone developlemtn, what happens to chondrocytes after they form their lacuna?
They die
Of the 2 types of bone formation, which one produces bones from mesenchyme?
Membrane/Inramembranous
What is the name for the cartilage plate in long bones where growth in length occurs?
Epiphyseal Plate
What gland produces calcitonin?
Thyroid
What is the common name for 1,25 dihydroxycholecalipherol?
Vitamin D
What does the prefix "dys" mean in works like dysplasia or disrrhythmia?
Ill
What specidic structure passes through foramen rotundum?
Maxillary of CN 5
Give the name for cranial nerve number ten.
Vagus
What bones in the female pelvis form an angle that is usually greater than 90 degrees?
Pubis
What bone interconnects the pectoral appendage with the axial skeleton?
Clavicle
What structure passes through a transverse foramen?
Vertebral Arteries & Veins
What is the specific name for a joint where total fusion joins two bones like between the ilium and ischium?
Synostosis
What is the specific name for te typ eof joint for which the connection with ribs and the sternum is an example?
Synchondrosis
Other than the TM, sterno-clavicular or radius-ulna, name a specific place in the body where a meniscus is located?
Knee
Give the name for the membrane tubes through which tendons slide beneath the retinacula?
Tendon Sheath
What is the name for the movement that is opposite to dorsiflexion of the foot?
Plantar flexion
Name the movement that rolls the hand from the palm down position to the palm up position?
Supination
What special movement is opposite to elevation?
Depression
Other than the femur or the tibia, whta bone is part of the knee joint?
Patella
Name the specific ligament that passes straight from the femur to the fibula?
Lateral/Fibular Collateral
What ligament in the knee is most likely damaged when the tibia is displaced slightly anterior to it's normal place beneath the femur?
ACL