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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Retrograde Amnesia
difficulty in remembering events that
occurred before a specific trauma or disease.
Anterograde Amnesia
inability to remember events following an injury or disease
3 Store Model of Memory
Sensory, Short-term, Long-term memory
Sensory
Type of Information that is stored in a relatively raw
and unprocessed form.
Short-term
temporary storage of memory for 5-15 seconds or
even longer.
Iconic Store
visual sensory register; Eidetic imagery (photographic memory)
Long-term
Site of permanent memory
- Atkinson & Shiffrin suggest it’s encoded semantically in
terms of meaning
Echoic
auditory sensory memory
Levels-of-processing
Craik & Lockhart): Proposes
that there is one type of memory and that deeper (levels of)
processing results in longer-lasting memory codes.
Multiple-Memory Model
Explicit, Implicit
Declarative, Procedural
Semantic & Episodic
Declarative (Explicit memory)
remembering the rules of
tennis (scoring, rules..).
Semantic Memory
contains general knowledge that is not
tied to the time when the information was learned.
Procedural Memory (Implicit Memory)
is memory for
ACTIONS, SKILLS, & OPERATIONS.
“Knowing How”
Episodic Memory
WHEN events happened and the relationship
between events (personal experiences)
ENCODING
transformation of sensory input into a form that can
be used for storage of information
STORAGE
retention of information gained from encoding
RETRIEVAL
gaining access to the information stored in memory
DECAY THEORY
proposes that forgetting occurs due to the memory
trace fading with time due to lack of use.
Retroactive Interference
distant events can not be remembered
because the memory of more recent events interferes
Proactive Interference
difficulty in learning new material because
previously learned material keeps interfering with new learning
SERIAL-ORDER-EFFECT
what you learn first and retain best are those
items at the beginning & end of the list.
Primacy Effect
tendency to remember the first items
Recency Effect
tendency to remember the last items
MNEMONIC DEVICES
techniques used to help memorize items
Massed Practice
Cramming all of the studying in one period
Distributed Practice
learned over several sessions
Serial Exhaustive Search
check the test digit against all digits in the
positive set even if a match is found part way through the list
Constructive Memory
prior experience affects how we recall things and
what we actually recal
Reconstructive Memory
use of various strategies (searching for cues, drawing inferences)
Autobiographical Memory
memory for personal experiences from one’s life
Reminiscence bump
increase in memories between the ages of
18-24 years (for people 35 years and older).
Compromised Memory
blending of information in eyewitness testimony
Misinformation Effect
Post-event information changes eyewitness testimony
Repressed Memories
- There is no memory phenomenon called repression
- “Repression” is a CLINICAL TERM not a MEMORY TERM
False Memory
Remembring things quite differently from the way they originally occurred; remembering something that never occurred; there is no indication that a memory is distorted
DUAL-CODE HYPOTHESIS
(Paivio) two discrete codes for mentally
representing information. This suggests we represent some
information in nonverbal & analogue images (e.g., a person’s
face) and we represent other information in verbal & symbolic
forms
Analogue Code
mental images are an analogue code for physical
stimuli we observe in the environment.
Symbolic Code
use of arbitrary symbols to represent ideas (words &
combination of words)
Propositional Hypothesis
the meaning underlying a particular relationship
among concepts. Neither in words nor in images -> an abstraction
Functional Equivalence Hypothesis
Although visual imagery is
not identical to visual perception, it is functionally equivalent
to it.
mental rotation
mentally rotating an perceived object in the mind
Scaling
Mentally change the dimensions/proportions of an image
Cognitive Maps
internal representation of the way our spatial
environment is arrayed particularly centering on spatial
relationships.
Serial Recall
Memory task involving repeating the items in a list in the exact order heard
Free Recall
Memory task involving repeating the items in a list in any order
Cued Recall
Memory task involving repeating memorizing a list of paired items, then when you are given one item in the pair, you must recall the mate for that item.