Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a facility authorized to hold people before court appearance for up to 48 hours. most lockups are administired by local police agencies.
a system by which jail operations are funded by a set amount paid per day for each prisoner held
fee system
facility operated under a joint agreement between two or more government units, with a jail board drawn from representatives of the participating jurisdictions, and having varying authority over policy, budget, operations, and personnel
regional jail
an independent businessperson who provides bail money for a fee, usually 5-10 percent of the total
pretrial release because the judge believes the defendant's ties in the community are sufficient to guarantee the defendant's appearance in court
release on recognizance (ror)
facility where offenders such as pretrial releasees and probation violaters attend daylong intervention and treatment sessions
day reporting center
community supervision technique, ordinarily combined with home confinement, that uses electronic devices to maintain surveillance on offenders.
electronic monitoring
detention of an accused person in jail, to protect the community from crimes the accused is considered likely to commit if set free pending trial.
preventive detention
an alternative to adjudication in which the defendant agrees to conditions set by the prosecutor (for example, counseling or drug rehabilitation) in exchange for withdrawal of charges.
pretrial diversion
increasing the scope of corrections by applying a diversion program to people charged with offenses less serious than those of the people the program was intended to serve
widening the net
a method of correctional supervision in which staff members have direct physical interaction with inmates throughout the day
direct supervision
a practice under English common law whereby a judge could suspend the imposition or execution of a sentence on condition of good behavior on the part of the offender
judicial reprieve
a formally recorded obligation to perform some act (such as keep the peace, pay a debt, or appear in court when called) entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community, often on posting a sum of money as surety, which is forfeited by nonperformance.
a model of justice that emphasizes reparation to the victim and the community, approaching crime from a problem-solving perspective, and citizen involvement in crime prevention.
community justice
an investigation and summary report of a convicted offender's background, which helps the judge decide on an appropriate sentence. also known as a presentence report.
presentence investigation (psi)
the ability to force a person to do something he or she does not want to do
the ability to influence a person's actions in a desired direction without resorting force
constraints imposed on all probationers, including reporting to the probation office, reporting any change of address, remaining employed, and not leaving the jurisdiction without permission
standard conditions
constraints imposed on some probationers to increase the restrictiveness or painfulness of probation, including fines, community service, and restitution
punitive conditions
constraints imposed on some probationers to force them to deal with a significant problem or need, such as substance abuse
treatment conditions
an approach to probation that establishes goals for supervision and evaluates the effectiveness of meeting those goals.
performance-based supervision
the probationer's failure to abide by the rules and conditions of probation (specified by the judge), resulting in revocation of probation
technical violations
a range of correctional management strategies based on the degree of intrusiveness and control over the offender, along which an offender is moved based on his or her response to correctional programs
continuum of sanctions
a criminal penalty based on the amount of income an offender earns in a day's work
day fines
government seizure of property and other assets derived from or used in criminal activity
compensation for injury to society, by the performance of service in the community
community service
compensation for financial, physical, or emotional loss caused by an offender, in the form of either payment of money to the victim or work at a service project in the community, as stipulated by the court.
residential facility where persistent probation violators are sent for short periods
probation center
facility where probationers who fall behind in restitution are sent to make payments on their debt
restitution centers
probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload
intensive supervision probation (isp)
sentence whereby offenders serve terms of incarceration in their own homes
home confinement
a short period of incarceration (the "shock"), followed by a sentence reduction
shock incarceration
a physically rigorous, disciplined, and demanding regimen emphasizing conditioning, education, and job training. designed for young offenders
boot camp
the idea that different forms of intermediate sanctions can be calibrated to make them equivalent as punishments despite their differences in approach
principle of interchangeability
the process by which a new inmate absorbs the customs of prison society and learns to adapt to the environment
a set of rules of conduct that reflect the values and norms of the prison social system and help define for inmates the image of the model prisoner
inmate code
a structure established for influencing behavior to achieve particular ends
formal organization
obedience to an order or request
the ablility to obtain compliance in exchange for material resources
remunerative power
the ability to obtain compliance by manipulating symbolic rewards
normative power
the ability to obtain compliance by the application or threat of physical force
coercive power
a management principle holding that a subordinate should report to only one supervisor
unity of command
a series of organizational positions in order of authority, with each person receiving orders from one immediately above and issuing orders to the one immediately below.
chain of command
a management principle holding that a supervisor can effectively oversee only a limited number of subordinates
span of control
employees who are directly concerned with furthering the institution's goals; workers in direct contact with clients
line personnel
employees who provide services in support of line personnel (for example, training officers, accountants)
staff personnel
a governance theory that posits that, for a prison sentence to operate effectively, officials must tolerate minor infractions, relax security measures, and allow inmate leaders to keep order
inmate balance theory
a governance theory that posits that prison disorder results from unstable, divied, or otherwise weak management
administrative control theory
behavior that blurs, minimizes, or disrups the social distance between prison staff and inmates, resulting in violations of departmental policy
boundary violations
any formal, structured activity that takes prisoners out of their cells and sets them to instrumental tasks
prison program
the doctrine that prisoners ought to receive no goods or services in excess of those available to people who have lived within the law
principle of least eligibility
a process by which prisoners are assigned to types of custody and treatment
in generic terms, all forms of "treatment of the mind"; in the prison setting, this treatment is coercive in nature
treatment that emphaisizes personal responsibility for actions and their consequences
reality therapy
a form of behavior therapy that focuses on changing the thinking and reasoning patterns that accompany criminal behavior
cognitive skill building
treatment that induces new behaviors through reinforcements (rewards and punishments), role modeling, and other active forms of teaching
behavior therapy
treatment that attempts to create an institutional environment that supports prosocial attitudes and behaviors
social therapy
prison prgramming designed to teach inmates cognitive and vocational skills to help them find employment upon release
vocational rehabilitation
needs that, when successfully addressed by treatment programs, result in lower rates of recidivism
criminogenic needs
a summary measure of the value of a correctional program in saving money through preventing new crime
cost-benefit ratio
a labor system under which a contractor provided raw materials and agreed to purchase goods made by prison inmates at a set price
piece price system
a labor system under which a prison bought machinery and raw materials with which inmates manufactured a salable product
public account system
a labor system under which goods produced by prison industries are purchased by state institutions and agencies exclusively and never enter the free market
state-use system
a labor system under which prison inmates work on public construction and maintenance projects
public works and ways system