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26 Cards in this Set

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What is more closely related to fungi
Animals not plants
hyphae
tiny filaments, composed of tubular walls surrounding plasma membranes and cytoplasm
mycelium
hyphae form an interwoven mat
septa
most fungi are multicellular with hyphae (divided into cells by cross-walls), generally have pores large enough to allow tibosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell
Chitin
most fungi built their cell walls with this, strong but flexible nitrogen-containing polysaccharide indentical to the found in the externalskeletons of insects and other arthropods
aseptate (fungi)
their hyphae are not divided into cells by cross-walls
coenicytic (fungi)
consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass with hundereds or thousands of nuclei
coenocytic condition
results from the repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division
haustoria (parasitic fungi)
nutiren absorbing hyphal tips that penetrate the tissues of the host
nuclei of fungal hyphae and spore of most species (haplid, diploid, tetrapliod)
haploid except for transient diploid stages that form during the sexual life cycles
heterokaryon
a mycelium formed by the fusion of two hyphae that have genetically different nuclei
stages of fungi with sexual cycle
plasmogamy and karyogamy
plasmogamy
first stage of fungi union (sexual) fuson of two parents' cytoplasm when their mycelia come together
karyogamy
second stage of fungi union (sexual, the fusion of the haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents
dikaryotic
a mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent
diploid in fungi
in most fungi, the zygotes or transient structures formed by the karyogamy are the only diploid stages in the life cycle. meiosis restores the haploid condidtion before specialized reproductive structures of the myceliun produce and disperse spores
Phylum of fungi
Chyridiomycota(chytrids) Zygomycota(Zygote fungi) Ascomycota(Sac fungi) Basidiomycota(Club fungi)
Chytrids
mainly aquatic, some are saorobes; others parasitze protists, plants, and animals. primitive fungi that form uniflagellated spores (zoospores) the chytrids and fungi are now thought to form a monophyletic brnach of the eukaryotic tree
Zygote fungi
mostly terrestrial and live in the soil or on decaying plant and animal material
mycorrhizae
mutualistic associations with the roots of plants
rhizopus stolonifer
common zygomycete is black bread mold
rhizopus stolonifer reproduction
horizontal hyphae spread out over the food, penetrate it, and absord nutrients. in the asexual phase, bulbous black sporangia develop at the tip of the upright hyphae. within each sorangium, hundereds of haploid spores develop and are dispersed through the air. spores that happen to land on moist food germinate, growing into new mycelia. if environmental conditions deteriorate- for instance food is all used up- this species of rhizopus reproduces sexually.
zygosporangium
resistant structure (produced by plasmogamy) in which karyogamy and then meiosis occur. note that while representing the zygote(2n) stage in life cycle, is not a zygote in the usual sense of a cell with one diploid nucleus. rather it is a multicellular structure, first heterokaryotic with many nuclei from the two parents, then many diploid nuclei after karyogamy
the zygosporangia, for which zygomycetes are named
are resistant to freezing and drying andare metabolically inactive. when conditions improve, the zygosporangia release generically diverse haploid spores that colonize the new substrate
zygpte fungi form ________ during sexual reproduction
resistant structures
Phylum Asomycota
(sac fungi)produce sexual spores ub a saclike asci