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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The eyes are housed in the
Orbital cavity of the skull
White part of eye
Sclera
Sclera is coveted by
Conjunctiva. Thin mucous membrane. Also covers inner surface of eyelids.
Central transparent part of anterior eye
Cornea
What muscle elevates the upper eyelids and opens the eye
Levator palpebrae superioris
What muscle closes the eyelids
Orbicularis oculi
Gland that secretes tears
Lacrimal gland. Contains antibacterial called lysozyme that protects against infections.
What drains tears
Superior and inferior canaliculi into lacrimal sac into nasolacrimal duct.
What muscle moves eye up and towards nose
Superior rectus
What muscle moves eye towards nose only
Mefial rectus
What muscle moves eye downwards and away from nose
Superior oblique
What muscle moves eye away from nose
Lateral rectus
What muscle moves eye downwards and towards nose
Inferior rectus
What muscle moves eye upwards and away from the nose
Inferior oblique
Layers of eye (not incl. cornea)
Sclera, choroid, retina
Layers of eye through cornea
Cornea, (anterior cavity) anterior chamber aqueous humor, (anterior cavity) posterior chamber aqueous humor, iris, pupil, lens, posterior cavity containing vitreous humor
What is attached to the lens?
Suspensory ligaments attached to ciliary bodies attached to ciliary muscle
Formation and route of aqueous humor
Formed in capillaries in ciliary body, drains into canal of Schlemm, enters blood.
Cornea: vascular or avascular?
Avascular. Gets nutrients and Oxygen from aqueous humor.
Blockage of canal of Schlemm leads to
Intraocular pressure, pain, blurred vision, Glaucoma
Accommodation is
Lens thinning or thickening to allow light from near/distant objects to focus on fovea. Parasympathetic response.
Myopia is
Nearsightedness when focuses in front of fovea. Corrected with concave lens.
Hyperopia is
Farsightedness when image focuses behind fovea. Corrected with a convex lens.
Loss of accommodation
Presbyopia. Difficult to see near objects. Corrected with convex lenses.
Uneven curvature of the eye is
Astigmatism. Corrected with cylindrical lenses.
Single sheet of epithelial cells containing melanin
Pigment epithelium. Absorbs excess light and prevents reflection of light from inner surface of eye.
What is stored in pigment epithelium?
Vit A (retinol) needed for synth of visual pigments.
Describe Retinal Detachment
Detachment of the rest of the retna from pigment epithelium can lead to blindness.
Steps to converting light stim to axn potentials in optic nerve fibers:
1 light falls on photoreceptors, 2 retinal detaches from opsin, 3 leads to stim of photoreceptors, 4 neurotransmitter released, 5 sets up axn potential in layers of connecting neurons, 6 axn potentials are conducted by optic nerve fibers in visual area of occipital lobe of cerebrum for interpretation.
Describe Rods
120M, pigment=rhodopsin, not many in fovea, high light sensitivity, night vision, not for color vision, low visual acuity (doesn't aid in sharp focus)
What cranial nerves supply the tongue?
VII, IX, X
Urinary system consists of:
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Location of kidneys
Retroperitoneally on posterior wall of abdominal cavity
List parts of kidney structure
Renal capsule, renal cortex, renal medulla, minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, renal column, renal pyramid, renal papilla, ureter.
Functions of kidneys
Waste removal, water/electrolyte balance, acid/base/H- balance/concentration, body fluid volume w renin enzyme, RBC production w erythropoietin enzyme, Ca level regulation w active Vit D.