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44 Cards in this Set

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Whigs
: Mid-18th century political faction that dominated Parliament/opposed to royal influence in government & wanted to increase the authority of Parliament
PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY
Principle that emphasized Parliament’s complete legislative authority within the British constitution
STAMP ACT OF 1765
Placed a tax on newspapers and printer matter produced in the colonies, causing a mass political movement among colonists
LOYALISTS
Loyal to the king & Parliament / Feared that American liberty might promote social anarchy
STAMP ACT CONGRESS
Meeting of colonial delegates in NYC in Oct. 1765 to protest the Stamp Act, a law passed by Parliament to raise revenue in America. Delegates drafted petitions denouncing the Stamp Act and other taxes imposed on Americans without colonial consent
BOSTON MASSACRE
A violent confrontation between British troops and the ordinary people of Boston on March 5, 1770. Five citizens were killed when the troops fired into the crowd. The incident inflamed anti-British sentiment in Massachusetts
COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE
Vast communication network formed in Massachusetts and other colonies to communicate grievances and provide colonists with evidence of British oppression
BOSTON TEA PARTY
Assault on British ships in which American insurgents disguised as Mohawk Indians threw hundreds of chests of tea into Boston Harbor as a means of protesting British taxes and the involvement of the East India Company.
COERCIVE ACTS OF 1774
Also known as the Intolerable Acts, the four pieces of legislation passes by Parliament in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party that were meant to punish the colonies
FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
Meeting of delegates from twelve colonies in Philadelphia in September 1774. The Congress denied Parliament’s authority to legislate for the colonies, condemned British accusations toward the colonies, created the Continental Association, and endorsed a call to take up arms
SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
This meeting took place in Philadelphia in May 1775, in the midst of rapidly unfolding military events. It organized the Continental Army and commissioned George Washington to lead it, then began requisitioning mean and supplies for the war effort
COMMON SENSE
Revolutionary tract written by Thomas Paine in January 1776. It called for independence and the establishment of a republican government in America
TREATY OF PARIS OF 1783
Agreement signed between American delegates and Great Britain that ended the American Revolution and also transferred territory east of the Mississippi River, except for Spanish Florida, to the new republic
REPUBLICANISM
Concept that ultimate political authority is vested in the citizens of the nation. The character of republican government was dependent on the civic virtue of its citizens to preserve the nation from corruption and moral decay
AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH
Church founded by former slave Richard Allen during a time when African Americans were denied equal standing with white worshippers
NATURAL RIGHTS
Fundamental rights over which the government could exercise no control. An uncompromising belief in such rights energized the popular demand for a formal bill of rights in 1791
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
Ratified in 1781, this document was the United States’ first constitution, providing a framework for national government. The articles sharply limited central authority by denying the national government any taxation or coercive powers
NORTHWEST ORDINANCE
Legislation that formulated plans for governments in America’s northwestern territories, defined a procedure for the territories’ admission to the union as states and prohibited slavery north of the Ohio River
SHAY’S REBELLION
Armed insurrection of farmers in western Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays, a veteran of the Continental Army. Intended to prevent state courts from foreclosing on debtors unable to pay their taxes, the rebellion was put down by the state militia. Nationalists used the event to justify the calling of a constitutional convention to strengthen the national government
VIRGINIA PLAN
Offered by James Madison and the Virginia delegation at the Constitutional Convention, this proposal called for a new government with a strong houses of Congress, each with representation proportional to a states’ population
3/5S RULE
Decision among committee members that, for the purpose of determining representation in the lower house, for every five slaves a Congressional district would receive credit for three free voters
FEDERALIST
Supporter of the Constitution who advocated its ratification
Anti federalist
Critic of the Constitution who expressed concern that it seemed to possess no specific provision for the protection of natural and civil rights
BILL OF RIGHTS
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1791 to preserve the rights and liberties of individuals
BANK OF THE U.S.
National bank proposed by Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton and established in 1791. It served as a central depository for the U.S. government and had the authority to issue currency
IMPLIED POWERS
Powers which the Constitution did not explicitly grant the federal government, but which it could be interpreted to grant
FRENCH REVOLUTION
A social and political revolution in France (1789-1799) that toppled the monarchy
JAY’S TREATY
Controversial treaty with Britain negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay in 1794 to settle American grievances and avert war. Though the British agreed to surrender forts in U.S. territory, the treaty failed to realize key diplomatic goals and provoked a storm of protest in America
WHISKEY REBELLION
Protests in 1794 by western Pennsylvania farmers resisting payment of a federal tax on whiskey. The uprising was forcibly suppressed when President George Washington called an army of 15,000 troops to the area, where they encountered almost no resistance
FAREWELL ADDRESS
In this 1796 speech, President George Washington announced his intention not to seek a third term in office. He also stressed Federalist interests and warned the American people to avoid political factions and foreign entanglements that could sacrifice U.S. security
QUASI-WAR
Undeclared war between the U.S & France in which French privateers began seizing U.S. ships in 1797
XYZ AFFAIR
A diplomatic incident in which American peace commissioners sent to France by President John Adams in 1797 were insulted with bribe demands from their French counterparts, dubbed X,Y, and Z in American newspapers. The incident heightened war fever against France
ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS
Collective name given to four laws passed in 1798 designed to suppress criticism of the federal government and to curb liberties of foreigners living in the U.S.
KENTUCKY & VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS
Statements penned by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to mobilize opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts, which they argued were unconstitutional. Jefferson’s statement (the Kentucky Resolutions) suggested that states should have the right to declare null and void congressional acts they deemed unconstitutional. Madison produced more temperate resolution, but most Americans rejected such an extreme defense of states’ rights
TECUMSEH
Shawnee leader who organized an alliance of native peoples, along with the help of his brother Tenskwatawa, to resist white encroachment on Native American lands
LOUISIANA PURCHASE
U.S. acquisition of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 for $15 million. The purchase secured American control of the Mississippi River and doubled the size of the nation
LEWIS & CLARK EXPEDITION
Overland expedition to the Pacific coast (1804-1806) led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson, the exploration of the Far West brought back a wealth of scientific data about the country and its resources
MARBURY V. MADISON
In this 1803 landmark decision, the Supreme Court first asserted the power of judicial review by declaring an act of Congress, the Judiciary Act of 1789, unconstitutional
JUDICIAL REVIEW
The authority of the Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of federal statutes
EMBARGO ACT
In response to a British attack on an American warship off the coast of Virginia, this 1807 law prohibited foreign commerce
WAR HAWKS
Congressional leaders who, in 1811 and 1812, called for war against Britain to defend the national honor and force Britain to respect America’s maritime rights
WAR OF 1812
War between Britain and the U.S. U.S. justifications for was included British violations of American maritime rights, impressments of seamen, provocation of the Indians, and defense of national honor
BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS
Battle occurred at the end of the War of 1812 when U.S. forces defeated the British army’s attempt to seize New Orleans, the key to the trade of the Mississippi River Valley. Even though diplomats from both sides were coming to a peace agreement, the news had not yet reached the combatants
HARTFORD CONVENTION
An assembly of New England Federalists who met in Hartford, Connecticut, in December 1814 to protest Madison’s foreign policy in the War of 1812, which had undermined commercial interests in the North. They proposed amending the Constitution to prevent future presidents from declaring war without a two-thirds majority in Congress