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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
political community where popular soveriegnty, political equality, and liberty all exsist
Direct Democracy
people directly determine what the government does. examples include: an initiative and referendum
Representative Democracy
elect a candidate to represent our interest in government
a moral process that attempts to reconcile social and economic differences in society, mechanism used to reach compromise when there is no single acceptable solution
Voting Rights Act of 1965
single most comprehensive of voting legislation ever enacted by Congress. Eliminated racially descriminating barriers. Ex. literacy test, poll tax
Jim Crow
system of laws, official segregation of american blacks
Civil Rights Act of 1964
anti descrim. legislation. Eliminated all forms of public discrimination and public accomodations
Affirmative Action
private/public programs designed to address contemporary effects of past descrimination
Positive State
argue govt should take an active role in providing goods and services necessary for a prosperous society
Minimalist State
argue govt is too large and inefficient. only produce goods unable to provide by ourselves
Collective goods
goods and services provided by govt for all of us whether paid taxes or not. ex. public ed.
Harold Laswell
who gets what, when and how
David Easton
authorative allocation of values
Foreign Policy
directly effect rel wtih other nations
Intermestic Policy
overlap foreign and domestic. ex. immig, trade deficits
Domestic Policy
programs and policies that directly effect individuals living within a country ex. social, education, environmental
National Debt
total amt of money govt owes ex.t-bills, notes, and bonds
National Deficit
annual accounting spending more than taking in
Policy making processes
cyclical 6 stage process, in which public policies are made
1)agenda setting (issue makes it on govt agenda, range of issues govt is dealing with at that given point in time)
2)policy deliberation(development of proposal, to try to develop solution)
3)policy enactment(leg. body passes bill to pres to become law)
4)policy implementation(bureaucracy responsible for implementing law passed)
5)policy output(policy enforced)ex.IRS tax reform bill, ex. audit
6)policy outcome (evaluation of policy)
Triggers of Pub.Policy
Various things that need pub. policy
1)National Disasters (Hurricanes),
2)Unanticipated 1)Human Events (Terrorism),
3)Technological Change in Environment(global warming),
4)Ecological Change (peoples life span, marriage rate, teen pregnancy rate),
5) Economic conditions (depression, inflation)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
estab seperate but equal
validated jim crow
Brown v. Topeka Board of Education (1954)
overturned plessy
pub schools desegregated
Public Policy
what the govt does or doesn't do
written doc. embodies rules of political system
Constitutional Convention
philly 1787, begin may 25 1787-sept 1787, 109 days, east room PA state house (Independence hall), 12 of 13 states showed but not RI, 74 delegates selected, 55 showed, no more than 30 at a single meeting, James Madison(father of constitution) attended every meeting
Judicial Review
authority of the court to declare legislative/executive acts unconstitutional, including Supreme Court, Marbury v. Madison(1803)
Declaration of Independence
where we find term all men are created equal
Articles of the Confederation
first serious attempt at written agreement of govt. Confed-loose assoc. of indep. states agreeing to cooperate on certain matters. In place for 6 yrs. 4 major problems. 1) no indep leader position 2)no taxing power for congress 3)no power for congress to regulate commerce 4)unanimous consent required for anything
VA Plan
-bicameral based on pop
-broad undefined legis.power
-single executive
-nat. court system
-council of revision
large state plan
NJ Plan
small state plan
-unicameral legis, = state rep
-same leg. power as art. with the exception of tax and commerce
-plural executive
-no natl court system
-supremacy clause(art. 6 today)
Great/CT Compromise
-settled debate over congress representation
-produced bicameral. popular-low chamber =state rep-upper chamber (17th ammendment senate directly elected)
Checks and Balances
to ensure no one branch is more important than the other
Separation of Powers
system in const. gives each branch sep. set of powers. jud-hear/decide cases
exec-implent decision of court
leg-makes legislation
Bill of Rights
1st 10 ammendments proposed by madison
-include to statisfy anti-feds, so no 2nd const. conven
Electoral College
institution that directly elects prez. 51 states elect electors. Ok 7 electors. 538 electors.# of electors = sum of congress. delegation. CA 55
U.S. Constitution
PreAmble(purpose of govt)
7 articles
27 ammendments
Constitutional Ammendment proposal stage/ratification stage
article 5 of consitution
formal way to ammend document 2 stage proposal/ratification
proposal:2/3 in each house&senate
convention can be called at 2/3 of states
Ratification:3/4 of states legislatures or approval of ammendment in conventions held in 3/4 of states (used for 21st ammendment)
3/5 Compromise
for purpose of house seats slaves counted as 3/5 person
Ammendments 1-10
Bill of Rights
12th ammendment
separate ballots for VP & Prez. Restrict electors for voting for both from their state.
13th ammendment
abolished slavery
14th ammendment
blacks claims to citizenships, BOR applicable to state, equal protection and due process clause
15th ammendment
black male right to vote
17th ammendment
senators elected directly
18th ammendment
19th ammendment
women right to vote
20th ammendment
day/time term for prez and congress begin jan 20 inaug.
Lame Duck
21st ammendment
Repeal Prohibition, only ammendment using state convention
23rd ammendment
3 electors for DC
27th ammendment
Congress can not raise pay while in session. Original 2nd ammendment proposed by Madison
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
SC case court estab. judicial review
votes to be prez
270 electoral votes
division of powers of 2 or more powers in same political system
Federal System
USA, divide powers in political system to various levels of power, natl govt with recognizing state, not unique to US, rare though
Unitary System
most common used form of govt. Division of power between central and sub-central. Strong central system which can abolish sub central govts.
Confederal System
power resides in independent states. ex. UN
Commerce Clause
Artice 1. Prohibit private forms of descrimination
Elastic Clause
Art. 1 Sect. 8 Clause 18, implied powers come from here
Supremacy Clause
art 6, natl govt rules
Express Powers
explicitly identified in constit. ex. power to tax, declare war for Congress.
Implied Powers
found in elastic clause, broad undefined powers belonging to congress not explicit in constit in ex. charter bank
Reserve Powers
belong to states, 10th ammendment, policies education , police powers
order to carry out policy or program given to state/local govt given by natl. usually unfunded
Dual Federalism
seperate and independent entities. ex layer cake, ex. courts(state/natl)
Cooperative Federalism
most common
intermingling between govt in diff policy areas
ex. marble cake
Picket-fence federalism
same as cooperative but in narrow area ex. teen pregnancy
New federalism
decision makin to state/local govt. associated with repub regan/nixon. ex. personal resp. work opp of 1996
Supremacy federalism
art 6 supremacy clause, natl govt prevails
Categorical Grant
provided from one level of govt to another
reciepent lil descression on how it can be spent
2 types:formula(Pell Grants) project
Revenue Sharing
windfall monies to state/local govt. crime rates, poverty rates. used for whatever they saw fit. No longer exsist
Block Grant
fair amt of descression on how you can spend money (urban renewal grants)
General Purpose Govt
provide wide array of services, police,water, fire dept, electricity
Special Districts
jurisdication geographically overlaps gen purpose govt. enables jurisdiction to collectively pull resources to provide for what they couldn't get for themselves. Largest category in US, school districts, perform single function like education, fire districts, etc
Equal Protection Clause
14th ammendment, requires states not deny citizens equal protection of the law, newly freed slaves
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819
interpreted elastic clause, powers of congress are elastic expanding or contracting
Establishment Clause
govt must remain neutral on religious issues
Free Exercise Clause
found in 1st ammendment, congress shall not make a law regarding religion, free to believe what we want to believe, actions of believes are not always protected, ex. prayer in pub school and moment of silence (unconstit)
Symbolic Expression
non verbal speech ex. flag burning (constitutional) less protected
Establishment clause
ex. lemon, allen, separation of church and state
Smith Act
illegal to advocate overthrowing of any govt by force or violence
Bad Tendency Test
unpopular speech could be restricted, lessened amt of latitude in free speech
Clear and Present Danger Test
test of speech, wide lattitude of speech, clear-direct present-immediate protected. ex. fire in crowded, not protected
Lemon Test
test used to determine whether money can be given to parochial schools, must have a secular purpose, primary effect must be neutral and can not intangle church and state
Civil Liberties
legally protected freedoms to act or not act, against unwaranted govt intrusion
Civil Rights
govt responsibilities so we can participate in democratic life
Right of Privacy
judicially created right, everyone has it, in shadow of bill of rights
Miller Test
test used to determine for obscenities
1)appeals to lust-obscene
2)conduct depicted illegal/law in books
3)laps test
Exclusionary Rule
mapp v. ohio prohibits illegal evidence to be used to prosecute
Prior Restraint
official censorship before something is said or published. Near v. Minnesota
Barron v. Baltimore
SC case upheld notion bill of rights not applicable to states
Mapp v. Ohio
provided exclusionary rule
Near v. Minnesota
provided prior restraint
Gitlow v. New York
bad tendency test
Gideon v. Wainwright
6th ammendment case, non capital cases right to attourney
Engel v. Vitale
SC case struck down short non denomenational prayer in NY
Wallace v. Jaffree
AL case ruled moment of silence unconstitutional
Griswold v. CT
right to privacy case, SC interpreted it this way
Roe v. Wade
right to privacy case extended for women to choose concerning abortions