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43 Cards in this Set

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Phases of Development
Scope-WHAT is appropriate for study
Methods-HOW should politics be studied
Objectives-What is the PURPOSE of the analysis
Classical Period
Up to 1850
Scope-Normative, Focus on ends, Pursuit of Good Life, Dealt with what is (human nature, justice)
Methods-deductive (hobbes, locke)
Objectives-knowledge is an end in itself, philosphers king, The Prince, knowledge should be put to use
Institutional Period
1850-1900
Scope-Politics as gov't, study centered on institutions, viewed as having an impact on human behavior
Methods-Qual & Descr, reliance on documents, historical, leagalistic
Objectives-greater concern on practical reform, progressive era, Change institutions will improve quality of democracy (primaries, at large districts)
Transitional Period
1900-1925
Challenges:
Irony of Form-> Always be an elite few who run gov't (Iron Law of Oligarchy)
Political Pluralists->multiple centers of power in any type of gov't (media, parties, lobbyists)
Symbolic Interactionists->people are products of environment, focus on behavior
Behavioral Period
1925-Present
Scope-Authoratative allocation of values in society.
Methods-Goals are explanations and predictions, research is oriented and predicted, facts seperate from values, sophisticated methodology, focus on individuals
Objectives-Knowledge is main goal, move away from PoliSci as applied science
Post Behavioralism
substance much precede technique
science is NOT value free
to have knowledge also means you have responsibility
5 Major Fields of Study
Am. Poli
Public Admin/Public Policy
International Relations
Comparative Poli
Political Theory
Professional Assoc
American Political Science Association
Midwest PSA
Inter. Studies Association
Common Errors in Human Inquiry
Innaccurate Observations-> Observation is planned, systematic
Overgeneralization->Assume one event is a gen. pattern. Use large samples, random, peer review
Selective Obs-> thru overgeneralization, look for that pattern only. Planned systematic observation, peer review
Illogical Reasoning->something wrong with logic of hypothesis. must follow standard rules of logic
Ego Involvement-> peer review, replication
Premature Closing->cut off research before its fully developed. Scientific process is never ending
2 Approaches to Science
Body of knowledge-> products, the ends, products as a body of statements, open to evaluation, organized in certain systematic relationships.
As a Method-> as a process, the means, following the systematic process of observing, measuring and evaluating our observations in the world
Assumptions of Science
Principle of Universal Causation->nothing simply happens, there are causes of the everyday events or situations, political phenomenon don't just happen, there are causes for these events. PoliSci's want to discover these.
Scientific Statements based on observations-> Science is empirical must be based on observations, obs are made in real world, science is to be objective
Scientific Inquiry is VALUE FREE->Deals with "What is", Does not focus on What ought to be, must be able to transfer knowledge, replicate procedures
Scientific Inquiry is SYSTEMATIC-> Formulate empirical concepts, suggest find relationships btwn concepts, develop theories, explain and predict
Arguments Against PoliSci
Complexity->no regularities can be found, no concepts, which equals no relationships, which equals no generalizations
Human Indeterminancy Argument->bcz humans have free will, we can never predict what they do. It is impossible to predict human behavior.
Reaction Prob->"Hawthorne Effect" subjects may alter their behavior if they know they are being watched.
Perceptions Involve
Registering something through senses
then ascribing meaning to what we have observed
provide meaning means we have to INTERPRET what we see
now our VALUES may influence perceptions
Perceptual Screen
Selective Exposure->expose ourselves to certain kinds of information/media
Selective Attention->only attentive to certain aspects of info
Selective Perception->perceive then with my views/thinking
Selective Retention->retain info with my views/thinking
What influences what we might see
Seeing and not seeing
past experiences
the context
Concept Formation
Language->Logical=connective words
=Descriptive Particular and Universal
Categories of Defn's
Real->Reportive Defn's
Ordinary Use Term
Assumes every descriptive word has an essential meaning
Nominal->Stipulative Defn's, assignment of a word to a form, Let X=Y. Makes no empirical claim, May agree/dis with meaning.
Conceptual Defn's-Defn's that descibe concepts using other concepts. The other concepts must be defined and the process regresses. Stop defining at the point of primitive terms. Downs Example.
Conceptual Defn's
Exhaustive
Mutually Exclusive
Not be circular
Stated Positively
Clear and unequal
Function of Concepts
Foundation of communication
means of classification
core of generalizations
building blocks of theory
Evaluating Concepts
Empirical Links
Linked to real world
Theoretically Importance
Linked to other concepts
Types of Generalizations
Universal Gen
Probablistic Gen
Tendency Gen
Criteria For valid Gens
Concepts must be empirical
gens must be logical
concepts must be universal descriptive words
Criteria for Establishing Cause
Association (direction and strength)
Temporal Rel (A must occur before B in order to cause)
Non-Spurious Rel (controlling for effects of 3rd variable)
Logical Rel- links them together
Causality: Sufficient Conditions
Factor which by itself is enough to bring about another event. but it is NOT a necessary condition.
A is a sufficient condition for B when: A occurs, B also occurs AND B might have other sufficient conditions.(pol scandal & pres reelection)
Causality: Necessary Conditions
A factor ALWAYS MUST occur before another event occurs.
A is a necessary condition for B when: B occurs we know that A is present but A is not alone a sufficient condition for B
Explanations and Predictions
Explanations as descriptions (explain how a bill becomes law)
Explanation is answering the why
(why did some members vote for or against)
Types of Explanations
Deductive-nomological
Statistical-Probablistic
Theories and Models
Scientific Political Theory (empirical vs. normative)
Defn->A theory is a system of logically related empirically tested law like propositions
Functions of Theory
Guides research
explanation
prediction
prescription
Models and Functions
Analytical system constructed so that the logical relationships between the elements of the model correspond to the relationships in the observable world.
Basics of Approaches
Orientation to looking at the world in a particular way. Represents a guiding orientation for research, directs us to a set of concepts.
Ecological fallacy
where the research conducted is on a macro scale but the conclusions are drawn on a micro scale
Individualistic Fallacy
rsrch conducted on a micro
draw conclusions at macro
ie-rsrch on individ id leads to concl that parties are on decline
Bio-Politics
Thomas Wiegle, "Biopolitics: A search for a more human Poli Sci"
Argues that biology can influence or temper decisions we make
Presidential Character
Attitude Approach
LaPiere Studies
Attitudes affect behavior
attitude change theory
Voting behavior model
socialization approach
Education, income, gender, race, age
Economic/Rationality Approach
Economic theory of Democracy by Anthony Downs
Spatial Model: to maxamize votes, voters are rational
Small group approach: groupthink
Victims of Group think by Irving Janis
Antecedent conditions: decision makers constitute small groups, structural faults of org, and situational content
Group approach
Governmental Process by David Truman
Interest Group Theory: The policy that emerges from the Political System will be the Equilibrium between the influence of groups.
Power Approach
Pluralism: Who Governs? Robert Dahl
Power is widely distributed
Many groups have power
Elitism
The Power Elite C. Wright Mills
Power is concentrated in the hands of few
Groups
Economic
Political
Military
Role Approach
The Legislative System Wahlke, Eulau, Buchanan & Ferguson
Role
A status or position
Occur in Pairs
Expectations
Multiple Roles – Role Conflict
Legislative Representational Roles
Trustee
Delegate
Politico
System Approach
The Political System by David Easton
As Theory, As Organizing Framework
Communication Approach
The Nerves of Government by Karl Deutsch

Very similar to Systems approach except the focus is on Communications
Key Concepts
Information
Load
Lag
Distortion
Gain
Feedback