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124 Cards in this Set

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What is foodservice
All establishments where food is regularly served outside the home
What is Quantity food production
Preparing large amounts of food to serve outside the home.
What is considered a Commercial Foodservice
-Full service
-Fast Foods
-Cafeterias
-Catering
-Snack Bars
-Lodging
-Transportation
What percentage is Commercial Foodservices and what percentage is Non-Commercial Foodservices in the Foodservice industry
75%- Commercial
25%- Non-Commercial
What are some charateristics of the Commercial Foodservice
-Customer makes the choices
-Owners are concerned about profit
-Big turnover
What businesses are considered a Non-Commercial Foodservice
-Schools
-Colleges
-Hospitals
-Nursing Homes
-Vending
-Military
What are some characteristics of the Non-Commercial Foodservice
-Customers have limited choice where to eat
-Focus on meeting nutritional needs
What are the 3 biggest CONTRACT management companies
1) ARAMark
2) Sodexho
3) Compass
Trends:

Contract Management Companies
-Expanding business
-Consolidation at the top
-Incr. mgnt of military and sports/recreation
-Online services for customer
Trends:

Business and Industry
-Reduction is subsidies
-Incr. emphasis on cost-effectiveness
-Labor costs a concern
-Expanded menus, services, and technology
-Compeditive pricing
Trends:

Primary Schools
-Move to incr. breakfast sales
-Regulation of compeditive foods
-Promotion of veggies, fruits, and milk
-Improved marketing techniques
Trends:

Colleges/Universities
-Expaned operating hours
-Vegetarian, organic, and sustainable menus
-Flexible meal plans
-Smartcards, online payments
Trends:

Healthcare
-Incr. nonpatient meals
-Expansion & renovations
-Customer Satisfaction
-Spoken menues and room services
-emergency preparedness (3 days worth)
-Growth and continuing care
Key Issues:

Primary Schools
-childhood obesity
-Mandatory School Wellness Policy
-Sale of Compeditive Foods
Key Issues:

Colleges/Universities
-Rising Enrollment
-Increased Tuition
-Changing demographics
Key Issues:

Health Care
-Hospital merges
-Cut backs
-staff cuts
-Cuts in government funding (Medicare/Medicaid)
Trends:

Military
-Contract Mgnt
-Better quality menus
Trends:

Correctional
-Cook-chill
-standardizes
Acronym:

JCAHO
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
What is JCAHO and what does it focus on
-Private non-governmental organization that sets standards for healthycare

-Focus on the education & training of pt and families, training of staff, leadership of directors, and methods of quality improvement
Who's to blame for incr. health care costs?
-Consumers
-Physicians
-Hospitals
-Technology
-Fed. Gov.
-The lack of competition to Incr. the effeciency & productivity in healthcare
What is being done to improve the delivery of healthcare?
-Flattening of Org. structure
-Redesigning tech. services
-Improving admission/discharge procedure
-staff cross-training
-reduced length of stay
-benchmarking
-building high performance teams
What are the 4 Generations of Time Management
1)Notes and Checklist
2)Calendars and appointment books
3)Notes, checklist, calendars, appointment books, + setting priorities and clarifying values
4)Mgnt. of self-focus on preserving & enhancing relationships & get results
What is the difference between URGENT and IMPORTANT
Urgent- requires immediate attention and has highly visible demands on time

Important- contributing to your mission, values, and high priority goals
How many quarents are there and which one is where we want to be
-4 quadrents
-quadrent II- Important, Not Urgent
How do you organize in quadrent II
1)Identify roles
2)Select goals
3)Schedule
4)Daily adapting
What are the 7 biggest time wasters
1)Excessive telephone calls
2)Unnecessary meetings
3)Unexpected Visitors
4)Paperwork
5)Fire fighting and emergencies
6)Procrastination
7)Socializing & Idol Conversation
What are the components of each quadrent
QI-Urgent & Important
QII-Not Urgent & Important
QIII-Urgent & Not Important
QIV-Not Urgent & Not Important
Defintion:

Ethics
-Principles of conduct governing an individual or business

-Views, attitudes, and practices about what is right or wrong
What are some ethical issues Dietitians face in the Clinical Setting
-Patient Rights
-Patient Confidentiality
-sales of supplements
-Removal of life support
What are some ethical issues that Dietitians face in the Business Setting
-Sales of products that are unethical
-Purchasing
-Human Resource Management
What are some ethical issues that Dietitians face in the Research Setting
-ethical treatment of humans and animals
-conduct research impartially
-accurate presentation of results
-Review committees for grants, presentations and publications must be fair
What are some ethical issues that Dietitians face for students
-Cheating on exams
-Plagiarism on written papers
How does the ADA handle an ethics complaint
1)Complaint must be submitted in writting within a year of the incident
2)Chair of the ethics committee revies the compl.
3)Respondent is notified
4)Ethics committee reviews complaint
5)Committee holds a hearing
6)Appeals
7)Confidentiality procedures
What are the parts of the Ethics Hearing
-Acquittal
-Recommend education
-Censure
-Suspension
-Expulsion
-Revocation of credentials
What are 5 questions to ask yourself to see if your action is ethical
1)Is the decision legal
2)Is the decision fair
3)does the decision hurt anyone
4)Have I been honest with those affected
5)can I live with my decision
Definition:

ADA for Leadership
the ability to inspire and guide others toward building and achieving a shared vision
Definition:

House for Leadership
ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization
Definition:

Management
the process of reaching organizational goals by working with people and other organizational resources
What are the Management Functions
1)Planning-occurs at every level and is the first step
2)Organizing-staffing and work activities
3)Leading or Influencing-guiding and motivating towards org. goal
4)Controlling-setting standards and measuring/comparing/adjusting performance
What are some differenced between Leaaders and Managers
Leaders-Do the right things, develope people & trust, and give trust and empowerment

Managers-Do things right and are more controling and direct, & their system is structured
What are the 3 roles of Managers
1)Interpersonal-figure heads
2)Informational-Mentors
3)Decisional-negotiator
What "8M's" of the resources managers manage
1)Men
2)Minutes
3)Machines
4)Money
5)Methods
6)Materials
7)Market
8)Motivator
What are the 5 approaches to Leadership
1)Trait
2)Behavior
3)Power/Influence
4)Contingency/Situational
5)Reciprocal
Categories of approaches to Leadership:

Trait
Surgency-extroversion, energy
Conscientiousness-dependability, integrity
Agreeableness-optimism, helpfulnes
Adjustment-self-esteem, self-control
Intelligence-inquisitive, open minded
Categories of approaches to Leadership:

Behavior
Employee: concerns/developement/recognition for subordinates
Task: Emphasis on performance & tech. aspects
Consideration: Friendship/relationships, mutal trust, respect, & decision making
Initiating struc.: Defining work and performance expectations, emphasis on goals
Categories of approaches to Leadership:

Power/Influence
-Position/Legal power
-Expert power
-Interpersonal/Referent power
-Reward power
-Coercive/Punitive power
Categories of approaches to Leadership:

Contingency/Situational
-Forces in the managers
-Forces in the nonmanagers
-Forces in the situation
Categories of approaches to Leadership:

Reciprocal
-Transactional: rewards & punishment
-Transforamtional: inspiration, intellectual stimulation, indiv. consid.
-Servant Leadership: 1st servant to others and 2nd leader
What are the manager's responsibilities in participative management
1)training & developing
2)Shared decision making
3)Team building
4)Compensating & Rewarding
5)Remove obstacles
6)Effective communication
What is the 5 Dementional Theory in Situational Approaches to Leadership
1) Retaining control Vs. Sharing control
2)High task concern vs. Low task concern
3)High person concern vs. Low person concern
4)Explicit expectation vs. Implicit expectations
5)Cautious vs. Venturous decision making
Definition:

Motivation
the process by which individuals are stimulated to act on their needs, desires, and drives
In the Pyramid of Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs, what are the levels
TOP to BOTTOM
Self-actualization
Esteem
Social
Safety
Physiological
What is a Hygiene factor and what are some examples
-Prevent job dissatisfaction

Examples: Job security, salary & benefits, peer interaction, good working conditions
What is a Motivation factor and what are some examples
-Used to motivate employees

Examples: Responsibility, recognition, advancement, challenging work, etc...
What are the 3 things Managers may need depending on their personallity
1)Need for achievement
2)Need for power
3)Need for affiliation
What types of Reinforcement strengthen a behavior
-Positive
-Advoidance
What types of Reinforcement weakens a behavior
-Punishment==> may lead to anger
-Extinction
What are some roadblocks to Participative Management
-Lack of support from Admin.
-Employee skepticism & lack of skill
-Culutre difference
-Job insecurity
-Unwillingness
What are 3 ways a person can communicate
-Nonverbal
-Speaking
-Writing
What are some communication barriers
-Environment
-Experiential
-Behavior
-Culture
What are the Advantages & Disadvantages of Verbal Communication
Adv:
-Prompt feedback
-Body Language, tech. skill not required

Dis:
-No written record
-No time for reflextion
-Environmental Distractions
Name the ways to get people to stop talking
-Get their attention
-Back-track
-Nod
-Redirect Conversation
-Ask closed ended questions
What is the 5-step process to deal with complainers
-Listen and let them talk
-Acknowledge their complaint
-Ask for ideas
-Ask them how they want it to be resolved
-Ask/tell their next step
What are 7 things needed in a business meeting
1)Clearly defined goals of meeting
2)Time to accomplish goals determined
3)attendies decided
4)format determined
5)Strategy plan
6)Agenda
7)Record meeting minutes
What are the Advantages & Disadvantages of Written Communication
Adv:
-Written record
-Message can be sent at any time

Dis:
-Takes longer to get to reciever
-delayed feedback
What are some rules for Effective Communication
-Plan the Message
-Determine Appropriate Lang.
-Be honest, accurate, and aware of body lang.
-Be sensitive to reciever
-Keep setting appropriate
-Encourage feedback
What are some rules for Effective Listening
-Be attentive
-Be Open-minded
-Develope empathy
-wait before responing
-observe nonverbal cues
-listen to whole message
-keep distractions to a minimum
What are the different channels of communication
-Upward
-Downward
-Horizontal
-Grapevine
Definition:

Planning
Determining organizational goals and objectives and developing procedures to reach them
Definition:

Goal
Describes what an organization hopes to accomplish over the long term
Definition:

Objectives
Specific statements of how an organization intends to accomplish the goals
Definition:

Strategies
Precise action plans for achieving goals and objectives
What are the 3 types of Organizational Planning
1)Strategic Planning
-long range
2)Operational Planning
-immediate range
3)Performance Planning
-for individual
What are the 3 Phases in Strategic Planning
Phase 1:
Data Gathering & Analysis, includes SWOT, and Mission & Vision statements

Phase 2:
Establishing goals, objective, strategies, & plan

Phase 3:
Implementing, evaluating, modifying
What the things in Operational Planning
Standing Plans
-Policies
-Procedures
-Rules

Periodic Dept. budget
-Operating
-capital
-Cash

Periodic dept. Business Plan
-Developed AFTER goal & objec
-Executive summary
What are 6 things that should be included in a Policy
1)Subject
2)Statement of Purpose
3)Effective Date
4)Area of Responsibility
5)Accountable Persons
6)Detailed specific issues and standards
What are 5 components of a business plan
1)Market Strategy
2)Production/Service Strategy
3)Research/Develp. Strategy
4)Organ./Mngt Strategy
5)Financial Strategy
Definition:

Gantt Chart
A scheduling technique that shows a timeline of sequential activities
Definition:

PERT
Program Evaluation and Review Technique

Used to plan complex projects and determines critical path for efficient scheduling of activities
What are the 6 components/characteristics of an Objective
1)Specificity
2)Conciseness
3)Time dimention
4)Reality
5)Described Method
6)Value dimetion that relates to Mission/Vision
What are the 3 critical elements for Decision Making
1)Authority or freedom to take action
2)Knowledge of the situation under consideration
3)Motivation to make the decision
What are the 6 steps in the Decision Making Process
1)Define the Problem
2)Gather Data
3)Identify alternative solutions
4)Evaluate relative value of alternatives
5)Implement best choice
6)Evaluate Decision
What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Team Decision Making
Adv:
-Culmative Knowledge & Experience
-More alternative solutions
-Greater motivation
-Creates a stronger working team

Dis:
-Time consuming
-No one assuming responsibility
-Fear can discourage creative ideas
What are the 4 Positive Coaching Challenges
1)Active Listening
2)USED Model
3)Positive Feedback
4)Constructive Feedback
Definition:

USED
Understanding, Showing, Experiencing, and Doing
Definition:

Organization
Developing a formal structure to divide, define, and coordinate
What are the different types of Committees or Work Teams
1)Ad Hoc- short term, specific
2)Standing Committee- Longer
3)Task Force- short term, from different departments
4)Project teams
5)cross-functional- same level employees but diff departments
6)Virtual teams
What are the 4 stages that a team goes through
Stage 1:
Orientation

Stage 2:
Dissatisfaction

Stage 3:
Resolution

Stage 4:
Production
Name some characteristics of an Effective Team
-Clear Role and Purpose
-Interpersonal Relationship
-Member empowerment
-Open/Honest Communication
-Participation
-High performance and motivation
-risk taking
-accountability
-specific goals
What are the different components of an Organizational Chart
1)Chian of Command
2)Unity of Command
3)Departmentalization
4)Lines of communication
5)span of Control
6)Line vs. Staff employees
What are the 3 types of Organizational Chart
1)Functional-hierarchical
2)matrix model
3)Bubble Diagram
What is the difference between Job Description and Job Specification
Description- written tasks to be performed and how they are accomplished

Specification-Qualifications required of employee performing the task
What is required on a Job Description/Specification
-Job title and classification
-responibilities
-statement of minimum stnd of performance for each task
-description of work envir.
-opportunities for promotion
-min. qualifications
What are the school programs
-School Lunch Program
-School Breakfast Program
-Special Milk Program
-After School Lunch Program
What level of poverty is required for free lunches
Family's income is less than 130% of poverty
What level of poverty is required for reduced lunches
Family's income is between 185% and 130% of poverty level
Who determines the Poverty Guidlines
Office of Management & Budget
What are the 5 types of menu planning
1)Traditional Food-based
2)Enhanced Food-based
3)Nutrient standard (NuMenus)
4)Assisted nutrient standard
5)Alternate approach
What are the 5 food groups offered in the Traditional/Enhanced Food-based menus
-Meat or meat alternative
-Milk
-Veggies
-Fruits
-Bread/Grain
What are the 3 food groups offered in the NuMenus
-Entree
-milk
-1 other item
What is the "Offer vs. Serve" and why was it implemented
A program designed to lesson food waste and give autonomy to students eating school meals

-Increase satisfaction
-Decrease food waste
-Decrease food cost
What nutritional requirements are in the SLP
1/3 of calories for age group

1/3 of RDAs for protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A & C
What nutritional requirements are in the SBP
1/4 of daily calories for age group

1/4 of RDAs for protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A & C
Definition:

Competitive Foods
foods of minimal nutritional value offered at the schools

-A la carte
-vending
-school stores
-snack bars
What are the requirements of the Local Wellness Policy
-Goals for Nut. Ed.
-Goals for Phys. Ed.
-Nut. Guidlines for all food sold on campus
-Establish a plan for measuring outcomes
-Must include parents, students and others
what are some problems in the Foodservice workforce
-Lack of English Language speaking skills
-Competition
-High turn-over rates (50%+ managers, 100-125% staff)
-Low pay and limited benifits
What are the 4 Classifications for Food service Employees
-Careerist
-Undecided
-Passing Through
-Misplaced
Definition:

EEO
Equal Employment Opportunity

Forbids discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, disability, pregnancy, national orgin, gender
Definition:

EEOC
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

1964, Covers hiring, dismissal, work reductions, layoffs, disciplinary actions, compensation, access to training & advancement
Definition:

Affirmative Action
Employers must seek out, hire, and advance reasonably qulified individuals from under-represented groups
Definition:

Glass Ceiling
Invisible barrier that may prevent women and minorities from achieving top-level positions
What are some Compensations and Benifits given to workers
-Social Security
-Fair Labor Standards Act (min. wage & overtime)
-Equal Pay Act
-Unemployment Insurance
-Workers' Compensation Insurance (work accidents or illnesses)
-Family and Medical Leave Act
Definition:

HIPPA
Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act

Provided for portability and continuity of health insurance coverage
What are the Standards for privacy and protected health info
-Genetic Info
-Healthcare plan
-Amount of premiums/health insurance
-work status
-enrollment in Medicare
What is the Purpose of the Immigration Reform & Control Act
To stop unlawful employment of unauthorized aliens in the US Employers must verify documents and maintain records that prove legal rights of applicant to work.
What are the advantages and disadvantages for INTERNAL recruitment
Adv:
-Improved employee morale and motivation
-less expensive method
-already familiar with the organization

Dis:
-may not have appropriate job skills
-lack of new ideas
What are the advantages and disadvantages for EXTERNAL recruitment
Adv:
-New ideas
-variety of applicants

Dis:
-More expensive
-time-consuming
-unfamiliarity with the organization
What is the steps for hiring
1)Recruitment
2)Application & Screening
3)Interviewing
4)Hiring
5)Orientation
6)Training
7)Performance Evaluation
What are some factors contributing to an employee's performance
-Quality of work
-Quantity of work
-Good relationship with co-workers
-Attendance
-Work habits
-Personal Hygiene
-Employee's initiative
What are some causes for employee turnover
-selecting wrong person for the job
-poor orientation
-insufficient training
-lack of teamwork
-ongoing unresolved conflicts
-poor supervision
-lack of opportunity for advancement
-personal reasons
Formula:

Turnover rate =
(# of separations per yr. x 100)/(Avg. # payroll employees)
Formula:

Absenteeism rate =
(# wkdays lost per pay period)/(Avg. # employees x # wkdays x 100)
Acronym:

OBRA
Omnibus Budget Reconcilliation Act

Nursing home reform by Health care Financing Administration (HCFA) with 50% dealing with nutrition and food service