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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bacterial Meningitis is primarily caused by what 4 bacteria?

How do you diagnose?
1- Neisseria meningitis (gram -)
2- Streptococcus pneuoniae (gram +)
3-Haemophilus influenzae (gram -)
4- Listeria (gram -)

Diagnose: Spinal Tap, Gram test the CSF.

These bacteria have capsules to help them evade the immune system when in the blood.
*Caused by Mycobacerium leprae
*transmitted by prolonged contact
*two forms, tuburculoid- infects nervous system and causes immune response
*lepromatous- evades the immune system and destroy tissue through bacterial replication.
*transmitted by ingestion

*In ~1% of cases it enters the CNS,
rapidly grows and divides in nerve cells and causes paralysis.

*paralytic polio is due to increased sanitation!

*Both Salk and Sabin vaccinations are available
Arboviral encephalitis
*Infection caused by a flagellated protozoan (Trypanosoma) that evades the immune system by "antigenic variation"
*transmitted by the tsetse fly
*first displays with fever, headaches, joint pain, but can progress to the neurological phase where it causes confusion and disruption of sleep cycle.
*Treatment: Eflornithine
Primary Ameobic Encephalitis
* Caused by the protozoan Naegleria fowleri
* Infects through the nasal passage and can eventually enter the brain. Can cause death within 2-3 days!
*985 mortality rate
*found in warm ponds, lakes, hot springs
Chronic Fatigue syndrome
*possibly caused by a virus such as Epstein-Barr or human herpes virus-6

*unexplained fatigue lasting >6 months plus: sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain, headaches, malaise after exercise, impaired short-term memory
What infections are commonly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ?
Otitis externa or swimmer's ear and post burn infections. Pseudomonas is a gram-negative, anaerobic rod shaped bacteria.
The bacterium that causes Buruli ulcer is a member of what bacterial genus?
The acid fast mycobacterium. Other species cause tuberculosis and leprosy
Staphylococcus aureus
Characterized as coagulase-positive, it also contains leukocidins, is lysozyme, defensin and in antibiotic resistant, has an exfoliative toxin and resistant, has an exfoliative toxin and a superantigen. It can cause folliculitis sty's, furuncles, carbuncles, impetigo, and also scalded skin and toxic shock syndromes.
Streptococcus pyogenes
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GAS). Characterized by hemolysins/streptolysins, hyaluronidases, and M proteins which evade the immune system by inhibiting phagocytosis. It causes such diseases as erysipelas, necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome.
Varicella zoster virus
Initial infection may cause chicken pox, but then it remains dormant in ganglia. When activated by stress it may cause Shingles.
Measles (Rubeola)
A leading cause of death among young children due to dehydration, encephalltis, and/or pneumonia
Rubella (German Measles)
Generally a mild disease but can cause complications to an unborn fetus (stillbirth, miscariage or birth defects)
The common cause of skin/planter warts it may be treated by removal (cryotherapy, elctrodessication, salicylic acid) or bleomycin or imiquimod
Fungal disease of the skin includingtrichophyton, epidermophyton, microsporum. Treated with the anti fungal miconazole.
Candida albicans
The agent of the common yeast infections may grow when normal bacteria are reduced by antibiotics. Causes Trush (an infection of the mucous membranes in the mouth) and yeast infections of genitourinary tract.
Conjunctivitis/pinkeye/red eye
Inflammation of conjunctiva commonly caused by Haemophilus influenzae. Use sanitary contact lens care! Chlamydia trachomatia causes trachoma, the worlds leading cause of blindness
Sarcoptes scabei
This fertilized female burrows into the skin and deposits the eggs in a tunnel behind her leaving elevated serpentine lines on the skin- causes rashes, sores or abrasions and sometimes blisters and pimples. Transferred primarily by skin-to-skin contact!
Clostridium botulinum
A gram-positive anaerobic rod that produces a toxin which inhibits acetylcholine release, preventing muscle contraction. Don't eat expired or dented/puffed canned food.
Clostridium tetani
A gram-positive anaerobe- produces a toxin which blocks neurotransmitter release via cleavage of proteins involved in exocytosis, leading to muscles firing spontaneously and failing to relax. Be sure to get your booster vaccine regularly!
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
A double-stranded DNA virus which enters broken skin or mucous membranes.
-latent in nerve cells for the lifetime of the host until triggered by a stimulus such as stress, UV radiation, fever, direct contact with other blisters or menstruation. Can cause fever, blisters around mouth, and swollen glands.
There is no cure but Acyclovir and anti-itch creams can help.
Lyssavirus rabies
A treatable but deadly infection that is caused by an RNA virus and is mainly spread by infected animals (a zoonose). Symptoms include anxiety, stress, tension, drooling, convulsions, excitability, muscle spasms, loss of muscle function, numbness/tingling, restlessness and difficulty swallowing. A preventative vaccine is given to those who may have been bitten by a rabid animal.
Crutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) & Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
The causative agent is a protein (PRION) that causes other proteins to misfold. The brain tissue develops misfold. The brain tissue develops holes and takes on a sponge-like texture. There is no accepted treatment and the disease is 100% fatal.