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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 Main Tissues
1. Connective
2. Nervous
3. Muscle
4. Epithelium
Epithelial Characteristics
-No blood vessels
-Protect, transport, gas exchange, excretion, secretion, absorption
-Derived from ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
-Basement membrane
-Cilia structural unit
-9 microtubule pairs surrounding center microtubule pair
-Smaller than cilia
-Actin filaments
-"Brush border", intestine
Like microvilli but branched
Calcium Ion Dependent Cell Adhesion Molecules
-Cell adhesion
-Tumor metasasis if cadherins broken
-Use catenins to attach to actin
Lambda, alpha, beta subunits attach cadherin to actin in cell cytoplasm
-Attach to carbs via lectins
-Used in white blood cell migration (T-cell "homing")
Selectin Types
(E, L, P)
E: on active endothelial cells
L: on leukocytes (white b.c.)
P: on platelets and endothelial cells
Calcium Ion Independent Cell Adhesion Molecules
-Ig Superfamily
Ig Superfamily
-CAM (cell adhesion molecules)
-HIV receptor
-Folded domain like immunoglobins
Attached to outside (fibronectin and laminin) and inside (actin) of cell using alpha and beta subunits
Transcellular Pathway;
Paracellular Pathway
-Transcellular: ions, water move through the cell
-Paracellular: travel between cells
zonula occludance, zonula adherance, macula adherance, gap juntions
Occluding Junctions
-Use zonula occludance ("belt" around cells)
-Tight junctions between cells
-Near apical domain
Anchoring Junctions
-Zonula adherance: attach to actin, around cell, below zonula occludance
-Macula adherance: spot "desomosomes"/adherins
-NOT intracellular juntion
-Attach basolateral domain to basement membrane
-Assymetrical (don't connect to another hemidesmosome)
Gap Junctions
-Tunnel between two cells
-Formed by 6 connexins (membrane proteins)
Basement Membrane
-Basal lamina + Reticular lamina
Basal Lamina
Made of laminins from epithelial cells and type IV collagen
Reticluar Lamina
Made of fibronectin from fibroblasts in CT
6 Cytoskeleton Functions
1. Mobility
2. Change shape
3. Phagocytosis
4. Support
5. Cell division (cytoinesis)
5. Cell-cell adherance
- Part of cytoskeleton
- Made of actin filaments
- G-actin: single unit
- F-actin: chain of G-actin
- "Treadmilling": G-actin added to + end and removed at - end
- Made of 13 alpha & beta dimers, 25 nm diameter
- Protofilament: column of dimers
- Help in mitosis
Saltatory & Axonal Vesicular Transport
-Saltatory: continuous & random movement
-Axonal: directional
Kinesin & Cytoplasmic Dynein
-Motor proteins
-Kinesin: anterograde transport; takes things away from cell center
-Cytoplasmic Dynein: retrograde transport; takes things toward cell center
Myosin II
-Made of 2 chains (light & heavy)
-Found in muscle & non-muscle
Chromatin Phases: Euchromatin, Heterochromatin, Hyperchromatin, Pyknotic
-Euchromatin: chromtin is unwound & ready for transcription
-Heterochromatin: chromain is wound, inactive
-Hyperchromain: in small lymphocytes
-Pyknotic: very condensed chromatin, cell is sick/dieing
Barr Body & Drumstick Body
-Bump is inactive X chromosome in females
-Barr body: in epithelium
-Drumstick body: in neutrophil
-Site of rRNA synthesis in nucleus
-Indicates transcription when visible
Mitosis Phases
-Prophase: chromatin condenses
-Metaphase: chromosomes align on equitorial plate
-Anaphase: sister chromatids divide
-Telophase: nuclear membrane reforms
Parenchyma & Stroma
-Parenchyma: secreting portion of gland
-Stroma: "home" of parenchyma
Phospholipid Bilayer, Glycolipids, Cholesterol
-5 diff phospholipids makeup 50% of membrane
-Glycolipids are cell identity markers
Cholesterol: adds stability
ER Leaflets: Exocytoplasmic & Protoplasmic
Exotyoplasmic: faces lumen of ER
Protoplasmic: faces cytoplasm (cystolic compartment)
Rough ER
-Ribosomes attached
-Produces proteins for outside of cell
-Sends proteins to golgi
Golgi Apparatus CIS & TRANS face
-Modifies proteins from rough ER
-CIS: closest to ER
-TRANS: farthest from ER
Primary & Secondary Lysosomes
Primary: new, not active
Secondary: actively "eating"
Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis, Clathrin-Coated Endocytosis
- Phagocytosis: cell "eating"
- Pinocytosis: cell "drinking"
- Clathrin-Coated: brings in small macromolecules
6 Steps of Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
1. Ligan attaches to receptor
2. Internalization of complex
3. Clathrin-coating of complex
4. Clathrin-coat detaches
5. Lysosome fuses w/ endosome containing ligand
6. Free receptor taken back to plasma membrane
-Produces ATP
-DNA from mother
Outer & Inner Mitochondrial Membranes
-Outer: pores to allow ions in
-Inner: cristae (folds) & matrix, both where ATP is produced
-Help w/ hydrogen peroxide metabolism
-Synthesize cholesterol & bile salts in liver
-Contain 50 diff enzymes
Multi-nucleated skeletal muscle cells
Epimyseum, Perimyseum, Endomyseum
-Epimyseum: covers entire named muscle, dense CT
-Perimyseum: covers fascicle of muscle
-Endomyseum: covers single muscle cell/fiber
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasm, Sarcosomes, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
-Sarcolemma: plama membrane of muscle cell/fiber
-Sarcoplasm: muscle cell cytoplasm
-Sarcosome: mitochondria
-Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: smooth ER
-Carry neural depolarization signal into muscle cell for contraction
-Release signal at A/I junction
-In skeltal muscle
-2 sarcoplasmic cisternae (reticulums) around a T-tubule
-Depolarization signal transmitted to sarcoplasmic cisternae
Myofibrils, Sarcomeres
-Myofibrils: long actin/myosin fibers in a muscle cell
-Sarcomeres: functional unit of muscle, between two Z bands
A, I, M, H, Z Bands
-A Band: length of myosin, can have actin
-I Band: only actin, takes 2 sarcomeres to form complete I band (straddles Z band)
-M Band: where two sides of myosin combine in H band
H Band: only myosin
Z Band: form boundary of sarcomere
Actin Myofilament
- Found in A & I bands
- G-actin: globular form
- F-actin: double-stranded fibrous form
Troponin & Tropomyosin
-Troponin: T, I, & C attached to actin, C not in smooth muscle, Ca binds to tropoinin C so myosin can attach to actin
-Tropomyosin: in groove between 2 actin filaments
Myosin Myofilaments
-In A & H bands
-Myosin II
-Globular head binds to F-actin during contraction
Nebulin, Desmin, Plectin, Alpha Actinin & Titin
-Nebulin: template for actin
-Desmin: holds myofibrils together uniformly
-Plectin: binds 2 desmin strands together
-Alpha Actinin: "glue" that sticks actin to Z-band
-Titin: like a spring, keeps myosin in line
What Changes During Contraction
-Sarcomere length decreases
-H band length decreases as more overlap of actin & myosin
-I band decreases as more overlapping of actin & myosin
What Does Not Change During Contraction
-A band length cause length of myosin myofilament doesn't change
-Myofilament length of actin & myosin remainse the same
Basal Lamina & Neuromuscular Junction
Basal lamina holds AcHase to break down AcH neurotransmitters
Muscle Contraction Steps
- T-tubule transports signal to triad at A/I junction
- Sarcoplasmic cisternae releases calcium
- Calcium causes release of troponin C from actin & mysosin head attaches and pulls actin
-Calsequestrin puts Ca back into sarcoplasmic cisternae
Cardiac Muscle Differences from Skeletal Muscle
-T-tubule releases signal at Z band
-"Diad" instead of triad (1 sarcoplasmic cisternae & T-tubule)
-Purkinje fibers act as conducters
-1 nucleus
Intercalated Disks
-In cardiac muscle
-Gap junctions and horizontal desmosomes between myocytes
Dense Bodies & Lipid Rafts
-In smooth muscle
-Dense Bodies: striated w/ actin & myosin-like filaments
-Lipid Rafts: indentations, like T-tubules
Contraction In Smooth Muscle
-No troponin; calmodulin takes its place
-Hormones can stimulate contractions
Red & White Muscle Fibers
-Red: "slow twitch", high in myoglobin (blood), used for sustained contractions
-White: "fast twitch", low in myoglobin, used for bursts of activity
Development of Nervous System
-Derived from ectoderm (outermost layer)
7 Structures the Neural Crest Derives
1. Parasympathetic NS
2. Enteric ganglia
3. Dorsal root ganglia
4. Heart
5. Chromaffin cells (adrenal medulla)
6. Schwann cells
7. Branchial arches (face), skull
Neuron Anatomy & Their Functions
-Stroma: aka perikaryon, cell body, receives & integrates signals
-Dendrites: at least 1 dendrite per neuron, receive signals
-Axon: 1 axon per neuron, transmit signals
Bipolar, Multipolar, Pseudounipolar Neurons
-Multipolar: has 1 axon & many dendrites
-Golgi Type I: axon is longer than dendrites
-Golgi Type II: axon is shorter than dendrites
-Bipolar: 1 axon & 1 dendrite
-Pseudounipolar: looks to have 1 pole but actually has 2
Necleus, Neurophil, Lamina, Ganglia
-Nuclues: cluster of neurons in CNS
-Neurophil: small material & synapses (not large neurons)
-Lamina: neurons in layers
-Ganglia: cluster of neurons outside CNS
Nerves & Tracts
-Nerves: group of axons outside CNS
-Tracts: group of axons inside CNS
5 Types of Synapses
1. Axoaxonic: axon "talks" to another axon
2. Axodendritic: axon talks to dendrite
3. Axospinoous: axon talks to spine of dendrite
4. Axosomatic: axon talks to soma
5. Somatoaxonic: soma talks to axon
Symmetrical & Asymmetrical Synapses
-Symmetrical (FIGS): flattened vesicles, inhibitory, GABA, symmetrical
-Asymmetrical (AREA): aspartic, round vesicles, excitetory, asymmetrical
Anterograde & Retrograde Axonal Transporte
-Anterograde: kinesin, soma to axon (away from cell)
-Retrograde: cytoplasmic dynein, axon to soma (toward cell center)
-Glial cells (supportive)
-Look like stars
Fibrous & Protoplasmic Astrocytes
-Fibrous Astrocytes: in white matter (myelinated fibers)
-Protoplasmic Astrocytes: in grey matter
Glia Limitans
-Glia limitans are foot processes of astrocytes
-Forms blood-brain barrier
Formation of Myelin in CNS & PNS
-CNS: oligodendroglial cells, no basal lamina so can't repair itself, can myelinate up to 50 different axons
-PNS: Schwann cells, has basal lamina so can repair myelin sheath, can myelinate only 1 segment
Major Dense Line, Minor Dense Line/Intraperiod Line, Mesaxons
-Major Dense Line: two cytoplasmic leaflets touching
-Minor Dense Line: space between cytoplasm
-Mesaxons: inner (where myelin starts) & outer (where myelin ends)
Nodes of Ranvier, Schmidt-Lanterman Clefts
- Nodes of Ranvier: gap between Schwann cells
- Schmidt-Lanterman Clefts: splitting in membranes
Microglial Cells Derivation & Functions
-Derive from mesoderm
-Phagocytose dead neurons
-Immune response
Ependymal Cells & Tanycytes
-Ependymal Cells: line brain ventricles (cavities)
-Tanycytes: in 3rd ventricle, contact blood vessels
Choroid Plexus
-Produce cerebral spinalfluid (CSF, filtrate of blood)
-Protects/supports brain
-Removes metabolic wastes
Epineurium, Perineurium, Endoneurium
-Epineurium: covers entire named nerve
-Perineurium: surrounds a bundle of nerve fibers
-Endoneurium: surrounds individual nerve fiber
Nissl Bodies & Chromatolysis
-Nissl Bodies: free ribosomes & rough ER in a neuron
-Chromatolysis: Nissl bodies disappear, cell is sick/damaged
Primary & Secondary Demyelination
-Primary Demyelination: myelin is first to go
-Secondary Demyelination: axon degenerates first then myelin is lost
Plasma (albumins, fibrinogen, immunoglobulins)
-Plasma: fluid component(92% water, 7% protein)
-Albumins: most abundant protein (50%)
-Fibrinogen: clotting factor
-Immunoglobulins: 2nd most abundant protein
-Also holds hormones, lipids, salts, & waste products
-Whole blood
-Plasma (55%)
-Sedimented red blood cells (45%)
-"Buffy coat" (1%, leukocytes & platelets)
-Red blood cells
-7.5 um in diameter
-Live 120 days
-Mature RBCs have no nucleus or organelles
- White blood cells
- 7.5-20 um in diameter
- Outside blood vessels
- Functions: phagocytosis & some produce antibodies
Primary & Secondary Granules in Leukocytes
-Primary Granules: all leukoctyes have them
-Secondary Granules: only granulocyte leukocytes have them
-Phagocytose bacteria
-First to respond
-Most numerous (60-70%)
-Combat parasitic infections, clean antigen-antibody complexes
-Stain bright red
-Leave blood vessels to become mast cells
-Have histamine granules to initiate inflammatory response & allergic reactions
- Agranulocyte (only contain primary granules)
- B-lymphoctyes & T-lymphocyte
- Large (only 4%) & small
- Hyperchromatic nucleus in small lymphocytes
-Very good at phagocytosis
-Largest leukocyte (3x larger than a RBC)
-Leave blood vessels to become macrophages
-Give rise to osteoclasts
Leukocyte Differential:
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
Never: Neutrophils (most)
Let: Lymphocytes
Monkeys: Monocytes
Eat: Eosinophils
Bananas: Basophils (least)
-Excess cytoplasm from a megakaryocyte
Commited Progenitor Cells: Lymphoid, Myeloid, 5 Colony Forming Units
-Lymphoid: produce lymphocytes
-Myeloid: become monocytes or neutrophils
-5 Colony Forming Units:
1. Basophils
2. Eosinophils
3. Granulocyte-Macrophage
4. Megakaryocyte
5. Erythroid
Hematopoeitic Growth Factors: CFU, Erythrophoietin, Thrombopoitin, Interleukens
-CFU: colony stimulating growth factors
-Erythrophoietin: stimulates RBC production
-Thromoboitin: produces platelets
-Interleukens: like hormones, stimulate leukocyte (WBC) production