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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the major difference b/w elitism and pluralism?
elitism is when an individual has all power which they use for their own interests. pluralism is when the individual has little or no power, only by group does an individual have power
what is an interest group?
organized group that makes policy-related appeals to the gov't
what is the difference b/w Autocracy, oligarchy, and democracy?
autocracy - single individual rules
oligarchy - small group of individuals
democracy - citizens play a significant role in the gov't process, usually through a selection of key public officials
what is the difference b/w representative democracy and direct democracy?
rep. democracy is through voting and direct is citizens making their own political decisions
what is the difference b/w Initiative, referendums, and recall elections (are they state/local or national?)
initiative - petition to put amendment up for adoption
referendums - electorate must approve before entering state const.
recall elections - official can be ousted before their term ends
What are the problems with public opinion polls?
people only know one side of the story usually thus making their opinion bias
what are the key elite and pluralist arguments?
elite - unequal access (money is the all-deciding factor), anti-democractic
pluralist - pressure groups provide useful functions (info giver/educator, policy formulaters, etc), and ensure fair play and compromise
what is aristotles roles in developing our constitution?
he was the first figure to make a distinction
what is the difference between monarchies, aristocracies, and democracies?
Monarchies - rule by one
Aristocracies - rule by few
Democracies - rule by majority
waht did the magna carta do?
established the ideal of "habeaus corpeaus", provided that the king was not permitted to imprison, outlaw, and exile or kill anyone at will - there must be due process first
what did the 1st and 2nd continental congresses do?
1st - drafted resolution to boycott british trade and raise colonial troops
2nd - national army, george washington as commander and chief
what were the articles of confederation and waht were some problems?
first constitutional document, states had too much power, federal gov't couldn't administrate taxes, etc
why was shays rebellion important?
reason why the articles of confederation collapsed
what was the make-up of the founding fathers?
what are the differences b/w the virgina plan, new jersey plan, and the connecticut compromise?
vp - bicameral legislature, lower house chosen by ppl, upper house elected by lower house
njp - favorable to smaller states, each state would get one vote in congress
cc - solved the other problems
what was the 3/5 compromise?
slaves count as 3/5 of a person for population purposes
what was the debate between the federalist and Anti-federalist about?
fed- pro constitution
anti-fed- const. should have more safeguards for individual rights
which branches of gov't were popularly elected?
table 2-3
which nation has the oldest written constitution?
United States
what was the voter qualification compromise?
see book
what is judicial review?
the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a government employee or agent for constitutionality or for the violation of basic principles of justice
what is the difference between federal, unitary, and confederal governmental systems?
fed - gov't divides power with centered and regional, or subdivisional gov't
unitary - all powers to national gov't
confederal - national gov't exists and operates towards the subnational gov't
what are the advantages and disadvantages of federalism?
advantages - dispension of power, keeps gov't close to ppl, can experiment with policies
disadvantages - no coordination b/w levels (i.e. - hurricane katrina), lack of uniformity
what is devolution?
more powers to states
what are federal mandates?
requirement in federal legislation that applies certain rules
what are the powers delegated to the federal government? and what powers are prohibited?
express powers, necessary and proper clause (implied powers and national supremacy), civil liberties
what are the powers delegated to the state government? and what powers are prohibited?
reserve powers(powers not delegated to gove is reserved for states, i.e. regulate intra state commerce, elections, etc)
prohibited - no treaties w/ other nations, coin money, nobility
what are concurrent powers?
powers that can be exercised by both levels of gov't (i.e. taxation, borrow money, etc)
what is the supremacy cluase?
states can't counter federal policies
why was McCulloch v. Maryland important?
stated that the national gov't is supreme to the states
Why was gibbons v. ogden important?
that interstate commerce on waters couldn't be taxed by states, hence the phrase "among the several states"
what is the difference b/w dual federalism, cooperative federalism, new fed, and competitive fed?
dual - where the states and federal gov't divide most governmental functions
cooperative - both fed and state exercise responsiblilties
new - return certain powers to states
competitive - state and local gov't compete businesses and citizens
what is fiscal federalism?
the power of the national gov't to influence state policies through grants
what is the difference b/w general revenue sharing, block grants, categorical grants?
grs - fiscal federalism
block grants - money for general policy areas(education)
categorical grants - money given to states for specific projects (liberal)
United States v. Lopes
forbad any individual to knowingly posses a firearm that she/he knows is a school zone
United States v. Morrison
remedy must be decided by the state and not the federal gov't
the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
required local officers to do a background check on handgun purchasers
what are subelites?
powerful agencies that are at the state and local levels
what is the difference b/w civil liberties and civil rights?
liberties - limits on gov't actions
rights - what gov't must do to ensure protection under the law for all americans
what is the differnce b/w writ of habeaus corpus, bills of attainder, and ex post facto laws?
writ - where officials must bring in a prisoner and explain why they are being held
attainder - directly punishes an individual w/o a trial
ex - when an individual is punished for somethign that was legal when committed and now illegal
what did barron v. baltimore do?
held that the bill of rights does not apply to the states
what did gitlow v. New York do?
the senate began using the due process clause of the 14th amendment to apply to the bill of rights to the states
what is the incorporation doctrine?
process of applying the bill of rights to the states
waht is the difference b/w the establishment clause and the free exercise clause?
ec - gov't can't promote nor discriminate against religious beliefs
fec- no type of religious practice can be prohibited or restricted by the gov't
what is prohibited by the free exercise clause?
anything illegal defined by the federal and state laws
what is the constitutional status of prayer in schools?
not in public schools b/c they are considered gov't agencies and can't sponser religious activities