• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What do endocrince glands produce?
Hormones
What are the reproductive actions of estrogen?
1. Proliferation of the endometrium during the follicular phase
2. Build up of mammary tissue in the breast during the luteal phase and during pregnancy
3. Increase of muscle cells to the uterus during pregnancy
What are the non-reproductive system actions of estrogen?
1. decrease fat storage
2. increase activity
3. decrease food intake
4. soften skin/skin resilience
5. Increase bone development and retain calcium in bones
6. Maintains stability of blood pressure
What are the target tissues of estrogen and progesterone?
Every cell of the body
What are the reproductive actions of progesterone?
1. Increase fats and glycogen in the endometrial cells
2. Increase mammary gland development
3. Inhibits coordinated contractions of the uterus
What are the non-reproductive actions of progesterone?
1. Reverses estrogen suppression of fat storage
2. Increases food intake and appetite
3. Decreases coordinated contractions of smooth muscle throughout the body (important during preg)
4. Maintains stability of blood pressure
5. Increases sleepiness
How are hormones transported to the posterior pituitary?
Axons carry hormones produced by the cell bodies located in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary
What is the major difference between an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland?
While an exocrine gland is ducted, an endocrine gland is a ductless gland that discharges hormones directly into the bloodstream and the release hormones are transported long distances through the blood to their target tissue where they act
What are the two simultaneously present endocrine glands of the pituitary gland?
1. The posterior pituitary
2. The anterior pituitary
Do the anterior and posterior pituitary glands directly communicate with each other?
No
What is the tissue that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
The infindibulum
Does the posterior pituitary release hormones?
No! It only release hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus
What are the two hypothalamic nuclei that produce hormones release by the posterior pituitary?
1. Paraventricular Nucleus
2. Supraoptic Nucleus
What hormone does the supraoptic nucleus produce?
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or Vasopressin
What hormone does the paraventricular nucleus produce?
Oxytocin
What are two things that oxytocin does?
1. Stimulates milk let down during breast feeding
2. Stimulates contractions of the uterus
What is the primary stimulus for oxytocin release?
Sucking of the breast sends a neural signal to the hypothamalus
Are oxytocin levels high or low during labor?
High, but we don't know if a high level of oxytocin causes labor or is a result of labor
What is a synthetic oxytocin that can be used to stimulate labor?
Pitocin
What does ADH do?
Promotes the retention of water by block water loss in urine
What are some inhibitors of ADH?
Caffeine and alcohol
What does Vasopressin do?
Increase blood pressure, vasoconstrictor
Explain how hormones are produced in the hypothalamus and released in the posterior pituitary
Cell bodies in the hypothalamus (specifically the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus) produce the hormone (oxytocin and ADH/ Vasopressin), they leave the cell bodies, travel down the cell axons through the infindibulum and then terminate in the posterior pituitary where those hormones are released into the pituitary and then into the blood stream where they act on their target tissue
What is the median eminence?
The median eminence is the nucleus at the base of the hypothalamus where releasing hormones enter the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system in order to be transported to the pituitary gland.
What is the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system?
It is a specialized blood vessel system that transports releasing hormones from the median eminence through the infindibulum to the anterior pituitary
What structure produces releasing hormones?
The hypothalamus
What are hormones that act "toward" a number of endocrine glands around the body controlling the production and release of hormones from these endocrine glands?
Tropic hormones
What structures produces tropic hormones?
The anterior pituitary
What is the target tissue of ACTH and what does it do?
1. Target tissue: adrenal cortex
2. Controls the production and release of the sex steroids (estrogens, androgens and progesterone), the gluccorticoids and the mineralcorticoids
What is the target tissue of TSH and what does it do?
1. Target tissue: thyroid gland
2. Controls the production and release of thyroid hormones which control metabolic rate
What is the target tissue of GH and what does it do?
1. Target tissue: liver, musculature, and skeleton
2. Affects growth rate
What is the target tissue of MSH and what does it do?
1. Target tissue: melanocytes
2. Affects skin pigmentation
What does BLPH do?
Precursor from which natural opiates like endorphins are produced
What are the two functions of FSH?
1. Stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles
2. Works with LH to stimulate ovulation
When is FSH most abundant in the menstrual cycle?
1. At the beginning of the month
2. At ovulation
what does FSH do in men?
Stimulates the production of sperm
What are the 4 functions of LH?
1. Stimulates estrogen production by the ovarian follicle
2. Works with FSH to stimulate ovulation
3. Stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum
4. Stimulates estrogen production by the corpus luteum
When is LH most abundant in the menstrual cycle?
At ovulation, but generally present all throughout the cycle
What does LH do in men?
Stimulates the production of testosterone