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72 Cards in this Set

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Drugs that affect feelings, thoughts, perceptions, or behavior
Psychoactive drugs
Drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is illegal.
illicit drugs
Drugs whose manufacture, sale, or possession is legal.
licit drugs
A condition in which an individual feels a compulsive need to continue taking a drug. In the process, the drug assumes an increasingly central role in the individual's life.
drug dependence
A chemical substance that, when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning.
Drug
Referring to the motivation of a drug user who takes the drug for a specific purpose other than getting "high".
instrumental use
Referring to the motivation of the drug user who takes the drug only in order to get "high" or achieve some pleasurable effect.
recreational use
Drug-taking behavior in which a prescription or nonprescription drug is used inappropriately.
Drug misuse
Drug-taking behavior resulting in some form of physical, mental, or social impairment.
Drug abuse
The philosophy and practice of healing in which the diagnosis or treatment is based on trancelike states, either on the part of the healer (shaman) or the patient.
Shamanism
A healer whose diagnosis or treatment of patients is based =at least in part on trances. These trances are frequently induced by hallucinogenic drugs
Shaman
An Egyptian document, dated approximately 1500 B.C., containing more than 800 prescriptions for common ailments and diseases.
Ebers Papyrus
Any change in a person's condition after taking a drug based solely on that person's beliefs about the drug rather than on any physical effects of the drug.
Placebgo effect
A drug or combination of drugs sold through peddlers, shops, or mail-roder advertisements.
Patent medicine
An antipsychotic (antischizophrenia) drug. Brand name is Thorazine.
Chlorpromazine
A collaborative effort among researchers in many scientific disciplines to understand the human brain and its relationship to behavior.
Neuroscience
Factors in an individual's life that increase the likelihood of involvement with drugs.
Risk factors
Factors in an individual's life that decrease the likelihood of involvement with drugs and reduce the impact that any risk factor might have.
Protective factors
Commercial preparations derived from vitamins, amino acids, or herbal extracts. Dietary supplement manufacturers are permitted to claim that these products can help with certain physical conditions associated with different stages of life, but they cannot be used to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent physical disease.
Dietary supplements
The physical or psychological harm that a drug might present to the user.
Toxicity
The quantity of drug that is taken into the body, typically measured in terms of milligrams or micrograms.
Dose
The phsyical or psychological harm a drug might present to the user immediately or soon after the drug is ingested into the body.
Acute toxicity
An S-shaped graphy showing the increasing probability of a certain drug effect as the dose level rises.
Dose-response curve
The minimal dose of a particular drug necessary to produce the intended drug effect in a given percentage of the population.
effective dose
The minimal dose of a particular drug capable of producing death in a given percentage of the population.
lethal dose
A measure of a drug's relative safety for use, computed by the ratio of the leathal dose for 50 percent of the population over the effective dose for 50 percent of the population.
Therapeutic index
The ratio of a lethal dose for 1 percent of the population to the effective dose for 99 percent of the population.
margin of safety
A federal program in which metropolitan hospitals report the incidence of drug-related lethal and nonlethal emergencies.
Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)
Drug-taking behavior involving two or more drugs simultaneously.
Polydrug use
The physical or psychological harm a drug might cause over a long period of time.
Chronic toxicity
The capacity of a drug to produce a graually diminished physical or psychological effect upon repeated administrations of the drug at the same dose level.
Tolerance
The process of drug tolerance that is linked to drug-taking behavior occuring consistently in the same surroundings or udner the same circumstances.
Behavioral Tolernace (sometimes called conditioned tolerance)
A model of drug dependence based on the idea that the drug abuser continues the drug-taking behavior in order to avoid the consequences of physical withdrawal symptoms.
Physical dependence
A model of drug dependence based on the idea that the drug abuser is motivated by a craving for the pleasurable effects of the drug.
Psychological dependence
A device to deliver intravenous injections of a drug in a free-movin human or animal.
Catheter
A diagnostic term used in clinical psychology and psychiatry that identifies an individual with significant signs of a dependent relationship upon a psychoactive drug.
Substance Dependence
A diagnostic term used in clinical psychology and psychiatry that identifies an individual who continues to take a psychoactive drug despite the fact that the drug-taking behavior creates specific problems for that individual.
Substance Abuse
Violent acts committed while under the influence of a particular psychoactive drug, with the implication that the drug caused the violence to occur.
Pharmacological violence
Violent acts that are committed by a drug abuser in order to secure money to buy drugs.
Economically compulsive violence
Violence that arises from the traditionally aggressive patterns of behavior within a network of illicit drug trafficaking and distribution .
Systmeic Violence
The philosophy of exerting as little control and regulation as possible.
Laissez-faire
into the vein
Intravenous
into the muscle
Intramuscular
Underneath the skin
Subcutaneous
applied to the mucous membranes of the nose
Intranasal
Applied under the tongue
Sublingual
A device attached to the skin that slowly delivers the drug through skin absorption.
Transdermal patch
The process of changing the molecular structure of a drug into forms that make it easier to be excreted from the body.
Biotransformation
A by-product resulting from the biotransformation process
Metabolite
The length of time it takes for a drug to be reduced to 50 percent of its equilibrium level into the bloodstream.
Elimination Half-time
An interval of time during which the blood levels of a drug are not yet sufficient for a drug effect to be observed.
Latency period
The property of a drug interaction in which the combination effect of two drugs exceeds the effect of either drug administered alone.
Synergism
The property of a drug interaction in which one drug combined with another drug produces an effect when one of the drugs alone would have had no effect.
Potentiation
The portion of the nervous system that consists of the spinal cord and the brain.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The portion of the nervous system consisting of nerves and nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system and outward to muscles and glands.
Peripheral Nervous System
The portion of the autonomic nervous system controlling bodily changes that deal with stressful or emergency situations.
Sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system
The portion of the autonomic nervous system controling the bodily changes that lead to increased nurturance, rest, an maintenance.
Parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.
The specialized cell in the nervous system designed to receive and transmit information.
Neuron
The portion of the forebrain devoted to a high level of information processing.
Cerebral cortex
The juncture between neurons. It consists of a synaptic knob, the intervening gap, and receptor sites on a receiving neuron.
Synapse
A chemical substance that a neuron uses to communicate information at the synapse.
Neurotransmitter
The process by which a neurotransmitter returns from the receptor site back to the synaptic knob.
Reuptake
A neurotransmitter active in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system, cerebral cortex, and peripheral somatic nerves.
Acetylcholine
A neurotransmitter active in the sypathetic autonomic nervous system and in many regions of the brain.
Norepinephrine
A neurotransmitter in the brain whose activity is related to emotionality and motor control.
Dopamine
A neurotransmitter in the brain whose activity is related to emotionality and sleep patterns.
Serotonin
An inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Antianxiety drugs tend to facilitate the activity level of GABA in the brain.
Gamma Aminobutyric Acid
A class of chemical substances, produced in the brain and elsewhere in the body, that mimic the effects of morphine and other opiate drugs. (opiates)
Endorphins
A system whereby substances in the bloodstream are excluded from entering the nervous system.
Blood-brain barrier
A region in the limbic system of the brain considered to be responsible for the rewarding effects of several drugs of abuse.
Nucleus accumbens
Latin term translated: "I will please". Any inert substance that produces a psychological or physiological reaction.
Placebo
A procedure in drug research in which neither the individual administering nor the individual receiving a chemical substance knows whether the substance is the drug being evaluated or an active placebo.
Double-blind