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46 Cards in this Set

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ADLs
Activities of daily living - dressing, eating, using the bathroom, doing laundry, etc.
activity tolerance
kind and amount of activity client is able to perform
antagonistic muscles
relax to allow movement initiated by "prime mover" muscle
antigravity muscles
involved in joint stabilization and continuously oppose forces of gravity. In adult, these are extensors of leg, gluteus maximus, quadriceps femoris, soleus muscles, and back muscles
body mechanics
All the ways in which the body moves and methods of using the body to increase efficiency and reduce strain. Coordinated by efforts of musculoskeletal and nervous sytems
cartilage
nonvascular supporting connective tissue with the flexibility of a firm plastic material
cartilaginous joints
little movement but flexible such as in rib cage
center of gravity
the point from with the weight of a body system may be considered to act
crutch gait
style/method of walking with crutches
exercise
is physical activity for conditioning the body, improving health, maintaining fitness, or it may be used as a therapeutic measure.
fibrous joints
fit closely together and are fixed
footboard
a tool to allow patient to push against to move up in bed or flex ankle
friction
forces opposing movement
gait
is the manner or style of walking including rhythm, cadence, and speed
hemiparesis
weakness on one side of the body
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body
isokinetic
exercise using equipment that regulates movement to a set speed regardless of force exerted
isometric contraction
"same length" contraction of muscles that does not result in movement - resistive isometric includes object to provide added resistance (eg - weight or wall)
isotonic contraction
"same tension" a muscle contraction that results in movement
articulation
(joint) - is a connection between bones
ligaments
white, shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue that bind bone to cartilage
mobility
ability to move - 3 components include range of motion, gait, and exercise
muscle tone
tension in muscles (healthy muscles retain some tension even at rest)
posture
pose or position of the body. Is regulated by nervous system and requires coordination of proprioception and balance
proprioception
awareness of the position of the body and parts
ROM
Range Of Motion - ability to move bones of a joint. Normal range of motion is based on joint mobility typical for age/sex/development
synergistic muscles
"helper" muscles that support and enhance strength and movement but do not act as the "prime mover" of a joint.
synovial joints
true joints - freely moveable and most mobile, numerous and complex
tendons
white, glistening, fibrous bands of tissue that connect muscle to bone
Steps to assess a patient's activity tolerance
Problem? Signs and symptoms? Timing (onset and duration)? Severity? Other Barriers to exercise/activity? Effects these have had overall?
PSTIBE mnemonic = Please State The Ills Barring Exercise
To assess posture in standing patient
First put at ease to reduce rigid/unnatural posture. Head erect and midline, symetrical, spine vertical and normal curves, abdomen tucked, knees in straight line with hips and slightly flexed, feet forward, arms hanging at sides.
examples of nursing diagnoses related to activity/exercise
activity intolerance
ineffective coping
impared gas exchange
risk for injury
impaired physical mobility
imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirments
acute or chronic pain
criteria used to evaluate effectiveness of interventions
Did it meet the client's expected outcomes and goals? Make comparisons with baseline measures that include pulse, BP, strength, endurance, psychological well-being.
5 functions of bone
support, protect, allow movement, mineral storage, hematopoisis
balance controlled by
cerebellum and inner ear
Effects of exercise on cardiovascular system (opposite effects caused by immobility).
increased cardiac output
improved myocardial contraction, strengthening cardiac muscle
decreased heart rate
improved venous return
Effects of exercise on pulmonary system (opposite effects caused by immobility).
increased respiratory rate and depth followed by quicker return to resting state
improved alveolar ventilation
decreased work required for breathing
improved diaphragmatic excursion
Effects of exercise on metabolic system (opposite effects caused by immobility).
increased BMR
increased use of glucose and fatty acids
increased triglyceride breakdown
increased gastric motility
increased production of body heat
Effects of exercise on musculoskeletal system (opposite effects caused by immobility).
improved muscle tone
increased joint mobility (opposite of contracture)
improved muscle tolerance to physical exercise
possible increase in muscle mass
reduced bone loss
Effects of exercise on activity tolerance (opposite effects caused by immobility).
improved tolerance
decreased fatigue
Effects of exercise on psychosocial factors (opposite effects caused by immobility).
improved tolerance of stress
reports of "feeling better"
reports of decreased illness (colds, influenza)
Limited range of motion often indicates
inflammation (eg arthritis), fluid in the joint, altered nerve supply, or contractures
increased mobility beyond the normal range of motion may indicate
connective tissue disorders, ligament tears, or possible joint fractures
orthostatic hypotension
a drop in blood pressure that occurs when a client changes from a horizontal to vertical position
Techniques to avoid injury when lifting/moving a patient
Wide base of support
lower center of gravity
keep COG between base of support
face direction of movement
divide load between arms and legs
leverage, rolling, turning are less work than lifting
always reduce friction
purposes and techniques of 3 kinds of joint ROM exercises
active, passive, combination. Flex and extend joint through full comfortable range of motion. Stop if there is any pain or resistance. If all is well complete 3-5 repetitions.