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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Brain
grey matter: outside
white matter: inside
Brain sections
Forebrain
Midbrain (Mesencephalong)
Hindbrain
Forebrain sections
Telecephalon
Diencephalon
Telencephalon
Brain-Forebrain-Telencephalon

Cortex
Limbic System
Basal Ganglia
Diencephalon
Brain-Forebrain-Diencephalon

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Cortex
Brian-Forebrain-Telencephalon-Cortex

Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital
Limbic System
Brain-Forebrain-Telencephalon-Limbic System

Amygdala
Cingulate Cortex
Fornix
Hippocampus
Mammilary Bodies
Olfactory bulb
Basal Ganglia
Brain-Forebrain-Telencephalon-Basal Ganglia

Striatum (Caudate/Putamen)
Globus pallidus
Thalamus
Brian-Forebrain-Diencephalon-Thalamus

Lateral geniculate nucleus (visual)
Medial geniculate nucleus (auditory)
Hypothalamus
Brain-Forebrain-Diencephalon-Hypothalamus

Autonomic Nervous System
Endocrine Nervous System
Midbrain
Tectum
Tegmentum
Tectum
Brain-Midbrain-Tectum

Superior Colliculi (eye mvmt)

Inferior colliculi (auditory function; sends the incoming auditory info to the thalamus)
Tegmentum
Brain-Midbrain-Tegmentum

Periaquaductal Grey Area
Red Nucleus
Reticular Formation
Substantia Nigra
Ventral Tegmental Area
Hindbrain
Brain-Hindbrain:

Metencephalon
Myelencephalon
Metencephalon
Brain-Hindbrain-Metencephalon

Cerebellum
Pons
Myelencephalon
Brain-Hindbrain-Myelencephalon

Medulla Oblongata
Frontal Cortex/Lobe
Brain-Forebrain- Telencphalon-Cortex- Frontal Lobe

Prefrontal Cortex ("human"; rostral/front of brain)
Primary Motor Cortex (PMC)
Motor Association Cortex (MAC)
Prefrontal Cortex
Brain-Forebrain- Telencephalon- Cortex-Frontal Lobe-Prefrontal Cortex

personality
organization; "human"; planning; future
Primary Motor Cortex (PMC)
Brain-Forebrain - Telencephalon- Cerebral Cortex - Frontal Lobe/Cortex - PMC

Controls motor output contra-laterally;
sends "go" message to muscles;
somatotopic organization
Cerebral Cortex of the Telencephalon
Surrounds cerebral hemispheres

convoluted in human/primate brain and smooth in lower species

Gyri- buldges
Sulci-small grooves b/t gyri
Fissures- large grooves b/t gyri

GREY MATTER - densely packed brain cells (outside)

(white matter= connections between cells; inside_
Motor Association Cortex (MAC)
Brain - Forebrain - Telencephalon - Cerebral Cortex - Frontal Lobe/Cortex - MAC

Anterior to PMC, transfers infor to PMC to give "go message"
Plans movement
Parietal Lobe/Coretx
Brain-Forebrain-Telencephalon - Coretx - Pareiteal Lobe

PSC: Primary Somatosensory Cortex

SAC: Somatosensory Association Cortex
PSC (Primary Somatosensory Cortex)
Brain - Forebrain - Telencephalon - Coretex - Pareital Lobe - PSC

location - post-central gyrus (right behind PMC in frontal)
receives contra-lateral sensory info
Somatoptropic organization
SAC (Somatosensory Association Cortex)
Located posterior to the PSC
somatosensory perception and memories
transefers info afte
Temporal Lobe of Cerebral Cortex
PAC: primary auditory cortex
AAC: Auditory Assication cortex
PAC
Primary Auditory COrtex of TEMPORAL LOBE

recieves auditory input like the pitch, volume, sound. Does not know what the sound it, just takes it in.

bilateral system
AAC
Auditory Association Cortex of the Temporal Lobe

interprets sound, "that is my cell phone"

stores auditory memories, analyzes auditory info
Occipital Lobe of Cerebral Cortex
PVC: primary visual coretx
VAC: Visual association cortex
PVC
primary visual cortex of the Occipital Lobe

Input form the contralateral visual field

(mid-line to the right side of the visual field all goes into the left retina, which goes to the right lobe)

takes in the incoming visual stimuli
VAC
Visual association cortex of the Occipital lobe

lateral ot the PVC
extends into the ventral temporal lobe
analyzes visual info
involved in visual perception
Corpus Callosum
thick axon bundle connection regions of the hemisphere, toward the core (long circle white thing in pics)

Coordinates sencory processing and motor output between the hemispheres

humans can live without! Seizures (epilepsy) that do not respond to drugs have the corpus callousum cut in half so crazy electricty signals in brain cannot be coordinated to other side of brain
Amygdala
Limbic System of Telencephalon

emotion (negative), anger, fear, learning and memory
Cingulate Cortex
LS

Emotion, learning, memory
Fornix
LS

Connects hipocampus with mammilary bodies
Hippocampus
LS

earning and memory
mammilary bodies
LS

memory
Olfactory Bulb
LS

sense of smell
Basal Ganglia
Telencephelon of forebrain

Motivation, generation of movemement

striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen)
Globus pallidus

Basal ganglia responds to primary motor cortex of frontal lobe because that is what sends "go" message
Thalamus
of Deincephalon of forebrain

relays info

1. lateral geniculate nucleus
2. medial geniculate nucleus

"mail room"; projection fibers=axon bundles extending from thalamus
Lateral geniculate nucleus
In the thalamus of the diencephalon:

vision info comes in before it goes to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe
Medial geniculate nucleus
autidotry info comes here before it goes to the autidory cortex of the temporal lobe
Hypothalamus
brain- forebrain- diencephalon - Basal Ganglia - hypothalamus

controls the autonomic NS and endocrine system
Endocrine system
B-Fore-Dien-BG-HYPO

anterior pituitary "master" gland, secretes hormones

posterior pituitary: extension of hypothalamus, secretes hypothalamic hormones
MIDBRAIN (mesencephalon)
Brain- midbrain!

Tectum
Tegmentum
Tectum
of Midbrain (mesencephalon)

located on the DORSAL mesencephalon

- superior colliculi
- inferior colliculi
Tegmentum
Mesencephalon

-Periaquaductal grey area
- Red nucleus
- Reticular formation
- Substantia nigra
Ventral tegmental area
superior colliculi
eye movement

(Tectum of midbrain)
inferior colliculi
auditory functioning. sends incoming auditory stimuli to the thalamus or mail room (medial geniculate nucleus) and sends it to teh primary auditory cortec (PAC) of the temporal lobe
reticular formation
tegmentum of midbrain

keeps us awake, arousal
Red nucleus
Tegmentum of midbrain

motor system, motor neurons info pass through on their here on their way to the primary motor cortex of the frontal cortex/lobe
Periaquaductal grey area
pain regulating; species specific behaviorl mating, aggression

Tegmentum of mid brain
Substantia Nigra
Tegmentum of midbrain

motor behaviors
dopamine
aids basal ganglia's striatum (of telecephalon) in generating movement direction

Parkinson's axons in SN destroyed
Ventral Tegmental Area
tegmentum of midbrain

sends axons to prefrontal cortex, then to the limbic ssystem. reward and reinforcement. drugs - feel good, plan to do it agian!
Hindbrain
metencephalon
Mylelencephalon
Metencephalonn
Hindbrain

Cerebellum
Pons
fart (en)
speed, motion
Pons
Hindbrain-metencephalon-

ventral brain stem

arousal/sleep
projects info from cortex to cerebellum for movement
Hindbrain
most primative brain structure "don't have to remember these things"

surrounds 4th ventricle

cerebellum, pons, medulla
Myelencephalon
Hindbrain

Medulla oblongata
Medulla Oblogata
Hindbrain- myelecephalon

caudal-most region of brain

cardiovascular, respitory, muscle tone, arousal
spinal cord
grey matter inside, white outside
grey matter
cell bodies and unmyelinated axons
- dorsal and ventral horns
white matter
mylinated axons, freeway to brain
Spinal nerves
31 pairs, each one has motor efferent/output and sensory afferent/input

as each nerve approaches the spinal cord, it splits into either dorsal and verntral root

dorsal is back, ventral front
Dorsol Root
CELL BODIES IN DORSAL ROOT GANGLION (out here
!)

carries senosry axon wiht info. Dorosal root cell bodies located in the dorsal root ganglion (out there) while the axons go into the grey matter dorsol horn
Ventral Root
carries the motor axon
cell body in ventral horn of spinal cord, (motor cell bodies), axon carries motor info OUT to periphery
Autonomic NS
Autonomic ganglia
-preganglionic neurons whose cell bodies are in the CNS

-postganglionic neurons whose cell bodies are in the periphery and carry messages to target organs
Peripheral NS
Somatic NS (senosry input, motor control)

Autonomic NS (we cannot control)
Autonomic NS
Sympathetic: Fight or flight, use energy
parasympathetic": rest and digest, conservation