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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Child Development
a field of study devoted to understanding all aspects of human constancy and change from conception through adolescence
Developmental Science
an interdisciplinary field devoted to the study of all changes we experience throughout the lifespan
Theory
an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior
Continuous Development
a view that regards development as a cumulative process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with
Discontinuous Development
a view of development as a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
Stage
a qualitative change in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterizes a specific period of development
contexts
unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in markedly different paths of change
Nature-Nurture Controversy
debate among theorists about whether genetic or environmental factors are more important in development
Resilience
the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development
Tabula Rasa
Locke's view of the child as a "blank slate" whose character is shaped entirely by experience
Noble Savage
Rousseau's view of the child as naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth
Maturation
a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth
Normative Approach
an approach in which agerelated averages are computed to represent typical development
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Freud's view of personality development, in which children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. The way these conflics are resolved determines psychological adjustment
Psychosexual Theory
Freud's theory, which emphasizes that how parents manage children's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years or life is crucial for healthy personality development
Psychosocial Theory
erkson's theory, which emphasizes that at each Freudian stage, individuals not only develop a unique personality but also acquire attitudes and skills that help them become active, contributing members of their society
Behaviorism
an approach that regards directly observable events-stimuli and responses-as the appropriate focus of study and that views development of behavior as taking place through classical and operant conditioning
Social Learning Theory
an approach that emphasizes the role of modeling, or observational learning in the development of behavior
Behavior Modification
procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
an approach introduced by Piaget that views children as actively constructing knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world and that regards cognitive development as taking place in stages
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
an area of investigation that brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
Ethology
an approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history
Sensitive Period
a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental indluences
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
an approach that seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age
Sociocultural Theory
Vygotsky's theory, in which children acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture through cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of their society
Ecological Systems Theory
Bronfenbrenner's approach, which views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment, from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values and programs
Microsystem
in ecological system theory, the innermost level of the environment consisting of activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings
Mesosystem
in ecological systems theory, connections between children's immediate settings
Exosystem
in ecological systems theory, social settings that do not contain children but that affect children's experiences in immediate settings. Examples are parents' workplace health and welfare services available in the community and parents' social networks
Macrosystem
inecological systems theory, cultural values, laws, customs, and resources that influence experiences and interactions at inner levels of the environment
Chronosystem
in ecological systems theory, temporal changes in children's environments, which produce new conditions that affect development. These changes can be imposed externally or ariese from within the child
Dynamic Systems Perspective
a view that regards the child's mind, body, and physical and social worlds as a dynamic, integrated system. A change in any part of the system leads the child to reorganize his behavior so the various components of the system work together again but in a more complex and effective way
Naturalistic Observation
a method in which the researcher goes into the natural environment to observe the behavior of interest
Structured Observations
a method in which the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response
Clinical Interview
an interview method in which the researcher uses a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view
Structured Interview
an interview method in which each participant is asked the same questions in the same way
Clinical or case Study Method
a method in which the researcher attempts to understand an individual child by combining interview data, observations, and sometimes test scores
Ethnography
a method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique values and social processes of a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation-living with its members and taking field notes over an extended period of time
Correlational Design
a research design inwhich the researcher gathers information on individuals without altering participants' experiences and then examines relationships between variables. Does not permit inferences about cause and effect
Correlation Coefficient
a number, rangin from +1.00 to -1.00 that describes the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
Experimental Design
a research design in which the investigator randomly assigns participants to treatment conditions. Permits inferences about cause and effect
Independent Variable
the variable the researcher expects to cause changes in another variable in an experiment
Dependent Variable
the variable the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable in an experiment
Random Assignment
an unbiased procedure for assigning participants to treatment groups, which increases the chances that participants' characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment conditions in an experiment
Longitudinal Design
a research design in which participants are studied repeatedly at different ages
Cohort Effects
the effects of cultural-historical change on the accuracy of longitudinal and cross-sectional findings. Children born in a particular time period are influenced by a particular set of cultural and historical conditions
Cross-Sectional Design
a research design in which groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time
Sequential Design
a research design in which several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies (called sequences) are conducted at varying times
Microgenetic Design
a rsearch design in which investigators present children with a noves task and follow their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions