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27 Cards in this Set

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the zygote 4 days after fertilization when then tiny mass of cells forms, a hollow, fluid-filled ball
Embryonic Disk
a small cluster of cells on the inside of the blastocyst, from which the new organism will develop
the thin outer ring of cells of the blastocyst, which will become the structures that provide protective covering and nourishment to the new organism
attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine lining, which occurs 7-9 days after fertilization
the immer membrane that encloses the prenatal organism
Amniotic Fluid
the fluid that fills the amnion, helping to keep temerature constant and to provide a cushion against jolts caused by the mother's movement
the outer membrane that surrounds the amnion and sends out tiny, fingerlike villi from which the placenta begins to develop
the organ that permits exchange of nutrients and waste products between the bloodstream of the mother and the embryo while also preventing the mother's and embryo's blood from mixing directly
Umbilical Cord
the long cord that connects the prenatal organism to the placenta, delivering nutrients and removing waste products
the prenatal organism from 2-8 weeks after conception-the period when the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs
Neural Tube
the primitive spinal cord that develops from the ectoderm, the top of which swells to form the brain during the period of the embryo
the prenatal organism from the 9th week to the end of pregnancy-the period when body structures are completed and dramatic growth in size occurs
3 equal time periods in prenatal development, each lasting 3 months
a white, cheeselike substances that covers the fetus, preventing the skin from chapping due to constant exposure to amniotic fluid
white, downy hair that covers the entire body of the fetus, helping the vernix stick to the skin
Age of viability
the earliest age at which the fetus can survive if born prematurely, occurring sometime between 22 and 26 weeks
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prental period
a sedative widely available in the early 1960's that produced gross deformities of the embryo's arms and legs when taken by expectant mothers 4-6 weeks after conception
Fetal Alcohold Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
a range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
the most sever form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, distinguished by slow physical growth facial abnormalities, and brain injury; usually seen in children whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol during most or all of pregnancy
Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (P-FAS)
a form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder characterized by facial abnormalities and brain injury but less severe than fetal alcohol syndrome; usually seen in children whose mothers drank in small quantities during pregnancy
Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)
the least severe form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder involving brain ijury but without typical physical growth and absense of facial abnormalities
3 day, or German, measles; responsible for a wide variety of prenatal abnormalities, especially when it strikes during the embryonic period
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
a viral infection that destroys the immune system and is spread through transfer of body fluids from one person to another; it can be transmitted prenatally
a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or uncooked meat or through contact with the feces of infected cats; during the 1st trimester it leads to eye and brain damage
Rh factor Incompatibility
a condition that arises when the fetus's blood contains the Rh protein but the mother's blood does not, causing the mother to build up antibodies, which if they return to the fetus's system, destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply to organs and tissues
an illness of the last half of pregnancy, also known as preeclampsia in which th mothers blood pressure increases sharply; if untreated it can cause convulsions in the mother and death of the fetus