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72 Cards in this Set

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the smallest units in which independent life can exist. All living things are single cells or organisms made of cells
any of a great number of working proteins that speeds up a specific chemical reaction, such as breaking the bonds of a nutrient, without undergoing change itself.
Fat Cells
cells that specialize in the storage of fat and form the fat tissue. Fat cells also produce enzymes that metabolize fat and hormones involved in appetite and energy balance
systems of cells working togeather to perform specialized tasks. Examples are muscles, nerves, blood, and bone
discrete structural units made of tissues that perform specific jobs. Examples are the heart, liver, and brain
Body Systems
a group of related organs that work togeather to perform a function. Examples are the circulatory system, repriatory system, and the nervous system
the fluid of the cardiovascular system; composed of water, red, and white blood cells, other formed particles, nutrients, oxygen, and other constituents
the fluid that moves from the bloodstream into tissue spaces and then travels in its own vessels, which eventually drain back into the bloodstream
blood vessels that carry blood containing fresh oxygen supplies from the heart to the tissues
blood vessels that carry blood, with the carbon dioxide it has collected from the tissues to the heart
minute, weblike blood vessels that connect arteries to veins and permit transfer of materials between blood and tissues
the cell-free fluid part of blood and lymph
Extracellular fluid
fluid residing outside the cells that transport materials to and from the cells
Intracellular fluid
fluid residing inside the cells that provides the medium for cellular reactions
the body's organs of gas exchange, blood circulating through the lungs releases its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen to carry to the tissues
the body's long, tubular organ of digestion and the site of nutrient absorption
a large, lobed organ that lies just under the ribs. It filters the blood, and removes and processes nutrients, manufactures materials for export to other parts of the body, destroys toxins or stores them to keep them out of the circulation
a paif of organs that filters wastes from the blood, making urine and release it to the bladder for excretion from the body
chemicals that are secreted by glands into the blood in response to condition in the body that require regulation. These chemicals serve as messengers, acting on other organs to maintain constant conditions
an organ with 2 main functions. One is an endocrine functioning the making of hormones such as insulin, which it releases directly into the blood. The other is an exocrine function the making of digestive enzymes, which it releases through a duct into the small intestine to assist in digestion
a hormone from the pancreas that helps glucose enter cells from the blood
a hormone from the pancrease that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream
the outermost layer of something. The brain's cortex is the part of the brain where conscious thought takes place
a part of the brain that senses a variety of conditions in the blood, such as temperature, glucose content, salt content, and others it signals other parts of the brain or body to adjust those conditions when necessary
Fight-or-flight reaction
the bodys instinctive hormone-and nerve-mediated reaction to danger. Stress response
chemicals that are released at the end of a nerve cell when a nerve impuse arrive there. They diffuse across the gap to the next cell and alter the membrane of that 2nd cell to either inhibit or excite it
the major hormone that elicts the stress response
a compound related to epinephrine that helps to elict the stress response
the sum of all physical and chemical changes taking place in living cells; includes all reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food
bacteria, viruses, or other organisms invisible to the naked eye, some of which causes diseases
a microbe or substances that is foreign to the body
Immune system
a system of tissues and organs that defend the bodey against antigens, foreign materials that have penetrated the skin or body linings
white blood cells that participate in the immune respnse; b-cells and t-cells
white blood cells that can ingest and destroy antigens. The process by which phagocytes engulf materials is called phagocytosis
lymphocytes that attack against antigens. t stands for the thymus gland of the neck, where the t-cells are stored and matured
lymphocytes that produce antibodies, b stands for bursa, an organ in the chicken where b-cells were 1st identified
proteins, made by cells of the immune system that are expressly designed to combine with an inactive specific antigens
Digestive System
the body system composed of organs that break down complex food particles into smaller, absorbable products. The digestive tract and alimentary canal are names for the tubular organs that extend from the mouth to the anus. The whole system including the pancrease liver and gallbladder is sometimes called the gastrointestinal, or GI system
to break molecules into smaller molecules; a function of the digestive tract with respect to food
to take in, as nutrients are taken into the intestinal cells after digestion, the main function of the digestive tract with repect to nutrients
the wavelike muscular squeezing of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine that pushes their contents along
a muscular, elastic, pouch like organ of the digestive tract that grinds and churns swallowed food and mixes it with acid and enzymes, forming chyme
a circular muscle surrounding, and able to close, a body opening
the fluid resulting from the actions of the stomach upon a meal
Pyloric Valve
the circular muscle of the lower stomach that regulates the flow of partly digested food into the small intestine
Small Intestine
the 20-foot length of small-diameter intestine, below the stomach and above the large intestine, that is the major site of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients
Large intestine
the portion of th eintestine that completes the absorption process
the large intestine
waste material remaining after digestion and absorption are complete; eventually discharged from the body
Gastric juice
the digestive secretion of the stomach
a measure of acidity on a point scale. A soulution with a pH of 1 is a strong acid; a solution with a pH of 7 is neutral; a solution with a pH of 14 is a strong base
a slippery coating of the digestive tract lining (and other body linings) that protects the cells from exposure to digestive juices (and other destructive agents). The adjective form is mucous (same pronunciation). The digestive tract lining is a mucous membrane
a cholesterol-containing digestive fluid made by the liver, sotred in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine when needed. It emulsifies fats and oils to ready them for enzymatic digestion
a coumpound with both water-soluble and fat-soluble portions that can attract fats and oils into water, combining them
Pancreatic juice
fluid secreted by the pancrease that contains both enzymes to digest carbohydrate, fat, and protein and sodium bicarbonate, a neutralizing agent
a common alkaline chemical; a secretion of the pancreas; also, the active ingredient of baking soda
the fingerlike projections of the sheets of cells that line the intestinal tract. The villi make the surface area much greater than it would otherwise be
tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that greatly expand the surface area available to trap nutrient particles and absorb them into the cells
spasms of both the vocal cords and the diaphragm, causing periodic, audible, short, inhaled coughs, can be caused by irritation of the diaphragm, indigestion, or other causes. Hiccups usually resolve in a few minutes, can have serious effects if prolonged. Breathing into a paper bag or dissolving a teaspoon of sugar in the mouth may stop them
a burning sensation in the chest (in the areas of the heart) areas caused by back-flow of stomach acid into the esophagus
medications that react directly and immediately with the acid of the stomach neutralizing it. Antacids are most suitable for treating occasional heartburn
Acid Reducers
prescription and over the counter drugs that reduce the acid output of the stomach; effective for treating severe persistent forms of heartburn but not the neutralizing acid already present. Side effects are frequent and include diarrhea, other gastrointestinal complains, and reduction of the stomach's capacity to destroy alcohol, thereby producing higher than expected blood alcohol levels from each drink
an erosion in the topmost, and sometimes underlying, layers of cells that form a lining. Ulcers of the digestive tract commonly form in the esophagus, stomach, or upper small intestine
a protusion of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of the body chamber that normally contains the organ. An example is a hiatal hernia, in which part of the stomach protrudes up through the diaphragm into the chest cavity, which contains the esophagus, heart, and lungs
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
a severr and chronic splashing of stomach acid and enzymes into the esophagus, throat, mouth, or airway that causes inflammation and injury to those organs. Untreated GERD may increase the risk of esophageal cancer; treatment may require surgery or management with medication
infrequent difficult bowel movements often caused by diet, inactivity dehydration, or medication
frequent, watery bowel movements usually caused by diet, stress, or irritation of the colon. Severe, prolonged diarrhea robs teh body of fluid and certain minerals, causing dehydration and imbalances that can be dangerous if left untreated
Irritable bowel syndrome
intermittent disturbance of bowel function, especially diarrhea or alternating diarrhea and constipation; associated with diet, lack of physical activity, or phsychological stress
the working units of the kidneys, consisting of intermeshed blood vessels and tubules
the sac that holds urine until time for elimination
a storage form of carhohydrate energy (glucose)
Adipose tissue
the body's fat tissue, consisting of masses of fat-storing cells and blood vessels to nourish them