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48 Cards in this Set

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****Define Muscular Strength****
1 RM; the max amount of weight that can be lifted one time throug the full range of motion
***Define Muscular Endureance***
a submax amount of weight that can be lifted over a period of time
Define Power
ability to exert force rapidly
****Define Flexibility***
ability to move the joint through a full range of motion
***Define Isometric***
Same length ex. Hand grip dynamomter
***Define Isotonic***
Same tension ex. Free weight ( weights dont change )
***Define Isokenetic***
Same velocity ex. rehab machines like biodex; p can exert different forces but sme velocity
***Define Concentric***
Length of the muscle shortens should last 2-3 sec. exhale
***Define Eccentric***
lenght of the muscle increases should last 3-4 sec. inhale
Factors that determine strength gains (6)
Overload, speceficity,reversibility, Individual differnces,hypertrophy, hyperplasia
Overload
muscles increase strength when they contract at near max tension *greatest gains 4-8 reps 3 or more sets
Speceficity
muscles trained will be the muscles that show improvement
Reversibility
Slow twitch muscles atrophy at a higher rate
Individual differences
genetics play a role in ability to gain strength
Hypertophy
increase area of muscle fiber *get larger but do not increase the amount *fast twitch has a higher tendency to hypertrophy
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of muscle fibers.
***What happens physiologically after strenght training?(8)***
-Decrease reflexive protective mechanism
-Increase in number of motor units
-Increase motor unit synchronization
-Increase in motor unit firing rate
-Increase in size of myofibrils
-Increase in total amount of contactile protein
-Increase in lean body mass
-Hypertrophy in type I and II fibers
Why is eccentric contraction held longer?
because it activates protein synthesis when muscle damage is done
Guidelines for strength benefits in healthy adults (# of exercises,sets,reps,seconds, times a week)
- 10-12 exercises: 4-6 lower 6-8 upper
- 1-2 sets
- 10-12 reps
- total of 7 sec. per rep
- 2-3 times a week (48 hour rest)
Strength tests
Handrip
one rep max = Bench press, leg extensions, squats
Endurance Testing
Pushups
Curlups
Situps
Chin ups
Static Flexibility
Fix position of a stretch
Dynamic Flexibility
Movement of the joint
***Flexibiliy Benefits***
-Decrease tightness
-poor joint movement can cause abnormal joint lubrication and deterioration
-Reduce DOMS (Delay onset muscle sorness)
-Relief of aches and pains form tension and sitting for long periods
-Improve posture
-Improved body positon for sports
Improve lower back pain
Types of Stretching (3)
-Static
-Ballistic
-Propioreceptive Neruomuscular Facilitation (PNF)
Static Streching
stretch held for 10-30 seconds, realy reccomended
Ballistic Stretching
muscles stretched suddnely due to bouncing heightened activity of muscle spindles, can cause injury not reccomneded
PNF
Propioreceptive neuromuscular facilitation- Contraction of muscle prior to stretching, causes muscle to relax before stretching.
Flexibility Tests
Goniometers and Sit and Reach box
Chronic Disease
a disease that is slow in its progress and long in its continuance
Chronic Diseases list them
-Coronary heart disease= Atherosclerosis, Heart failure, hypertension, stroke.
-Obesity
-Type 2 Diabetes
-Cancers
-Osteroporosis
-Sarcopenia (muscle loss)
***Components of Physical Fitness****
Body comp, muscular endurance/strength, CV, Flexibility
***Health Benefits of Aerobic Exercise(9)***
Decrease:BP
Cholesterol
Blood sugar
Body fat
Stress
Depression/Anxiety
Risk of Coronary heart disease Risk of diabetes
Risk of some cancers
Risk of stroke
***Fitness Benefits of Aerobic Exercise (6)***
Increase:
VO2 max
Speed
Agility
Coordination
Technique
Performance
***Structured Guidelines for Aerobic Exercise***
Freq.: 3-5 X'S / week
Duration: 20-60 min
Intensity: 50 to 85% of HRR or 60 to 90% of HR max
Mode: activities a person enjoys such as walking, cycling, dancing…
Ways to monitor Intensity
HR, RPE (13-15 is somewhat hard), Talk test(should be able to carry on a conversation)
***Lifstyle Activity***
-Over age 2 should do 30 min of endurance moderate intensity on most/all days of week
-30 min of activity can be broken up not all completed at once
-Health benefits with little activity
Surgeon General guidlines vs IOM guidlines
SG: 30 min of moderate exercise on most days of the week
IOM: 60-90 min of moderate exercise on most days of the week for WEIGHT REDUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
***Physiological reasons why cool down is important(Below 50% of Vo2max***
-Facilitates venous return reducing poential for hypertension
-Promotes disipation of heat
-Rapid removal of lactate
-Stops increase in chatecolamines (can happen in warm up and cool down but especially in cool down)
-If no cool down sudden stop of exercise causes blood pooling which decreases venous return
-A drop on venous return reduced BF to the heart which can cause angina, st segment depression and ventricular arrhythmias.
Benefits of exercise conditioning for diabetics
-improve blood glucose control
-improve in insulin sensitivity
-Reduce meds
-reduce body fat
-reduce bp
-reduce TG and cholesterol
-improve walking ability
-reduce stress improve self esteem
***Guidlines for Aerobic training in Diabetis***
Frequency = daily or at least 4x's a week
Duration = 30-40 min
Intensity = 60-75% of HR max
***Precautions when exercising a diabetic***
-Those with fastingplama glucose greater than 250 should not exercise
-Have adequate fluid replacement
-avoid strenuous exercise untill diabetes is under control
-Proper foot wear/hygiene
-slow/gradual progress
-Warmup and cool down
-exercise with buddy
-dont exercise at night because of delayed hypoglycemia when sleeping
***Prevent hypoglycemia***
-consistency in life habits
-monitor your own blood glucose
-use non extremeties sites for injections if will be using those body parts to exercise
-avoid exercise after inj.
-exercise after a light meal or snack
-Have CHO's available while exercising, 10-15 grams of CHO for every 30 min of exer.
-Inform others of diabetic condition and wear medical bracelets
-Stop exercise if hypoglycemic and have a CHO snack
Moderate activity is considered...
burning 150 calores a day or 1000 calories a week
Optimal guidelines for children
Freq: daily 3 or more sessions a day
Intensity: Moderate to vigorous alternating with breaks
Time: expend 6-8 kcal/kg/day
***Ex. Rx for children (aerobic)***
Freq: 3-5x's a week
Duration: 20-60 min
Intensity:60-90% of HRmax
Mode: activities a person enjoys
***Precautions for children***
-at an icrease risk for heat injury and take longer to acclimitize
-Plenty of fluids
-in cold they loos heat quickly so proper clothing
***Ex Rx for childern (strength)***
-8-10 exercises 4 lower 6 upper
-1-2 sets
-8-12 reps until fatigue
-twice a week